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8559A


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                                         Errata


Title & Document Type: 8559A Spectrum Analyzer Operation and Service Manual


Manual Part Number: 08559-90013


Revision Date: January 1984



HP References in this Manual

This manual may contain references to HP or Hewlett-Packard. Please note that Hewlett-
Packard's former test and measurement, semiconductor products and chemical analysis
businesses are now part of Agilent Technologies. We have made no changes to this
manual copy. The HP XXXX referred to in this document is now the Agilent XXXX.
For example, model number HP8648A is now model number Agilent 8648A.

About this Manual

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or contain dated information, and the scan quality may not be ideal. If we find a better
copy in the future, we will add it to the Agilent website.


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                                 www.tm.agilent.com

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OPERATION AND SERVICE   ANUAL




       SPECTRUM ANALYZER
                                                HEWLETT
                                                PACKARD



                          OPERATION AND SERVICE MANUAL




                              8559A
                        SPECTRUM ANALYZER
                                       0.1 - 21 GHz


                                         SERIAL NUMBERS

                          This manual applies directly to instruments with
                          serial numbers prefixed 2347A.

                          With modifications described in Section VII, this
                          manual also applies to instruments with serial num-
                          ber prefixes 1909A through 2320A.

                          For additional information about serial numbers, see
                          INSTRUMENTS COVERED BY MANUAL in
                          Section I.




                            COPYRIGHT O HEWLETT-PACKARD COMPANY, 1979,1983
                     1424 FOUNTAINGROVE PARKWAY, SANTA ROSA, CALIFORNIA, 95401, USA




MANUAL PART NUMBER 08559-90012
Microfiche Part Number 08559-90013                                                Printed: January 1984
                                                                      CONTENTS

Section                                                         Page           Section                                                      Page
I     GENERAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1                            3-29.     Display Adjustments-HP 853A
      1-1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1                            Spectrum Analyzer Display . . . . . . . . 3-3
      1-3. Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1                   3-30.     Display Adjustments-HP 180-Series
      1-6. Manual Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1                                  Display Mainframe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
      1-9. Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1                  3-31.     Frequency and Amplitude Adjustments. 3-4
      1-11. Safety Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
      1-13. Instruments Covered by Manual . . . . . . . 1-2                    IV    PERFORMANCE TESTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 - 1
      1-14. Serial Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2                     4-1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
      1-16. Manual Updating Supplement . . . . . . . 1-2                             4-3. Instruments Tested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
      1-19. Manual Backdating Changes . . . . . . . . . 1-2                          4-5. Equipment Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
      1-22. Accessories Supplied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2                     4-7.    Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
      1-26. Equipment Required                                                       4-9.    Calibration Cycle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
             Not Supplied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10                     4-1 1. Frequency Span Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
      1-27. Display Mainframe . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            4-12. Tuning Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 7
      1-30. Extender Cable Assembly . . . . . . . . . 1-10                           4- 1 3. Residual FM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
      1-32. Equipment and Accessories Available . . .1-10                            4-14. Noise Sidebands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
      1-33. Input Limiter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10                     4-15. Resolution Bandwidth Accuraacy . . . . . 4-14
      1-37. Modification Kit (Option 807                                             4-16. Resolution Bandwidth Selectivity . . . . . 4-20
             Connections) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10                       4-17. Average Noise Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-25
      1-39. Oscilloscope Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10                         4-18. Residual Responses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-28
      1-41. Service Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10                     4-19. Frequency Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-30
      1-43. Recommended Test Equipment . . . . . . 1-10                              4-20. GainCompression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-39
                                                                                     4-21. Bandwidth Switching (Amplitude
II         INSTALLATION AND OPERATION                                                         Variation) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-42
            VERIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1               4-22. Input Attenuator Accuracy . . . . . . . . . 4 - 44
           2-1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 1          4-23. Reference Level Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . 4-47
           2-3.  Initial Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1            4-24. Sweep Time Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-52
           2-5.  Preparation for Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1               4-25. Calibrator Output Accuracy . . . . . . . . 4 - 57
           2-6.   Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 1         4-26. Display Fidelity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-58
           2-9.    Side Stop Kits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 1
           2-14.   Graticule Overlays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3              ADJUSTMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 1
           2-17.   Operating Environment . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 3                 5-1.    Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1
           2-19.   Modifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3             5-4. Equipment Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 - 1
           2-21. Storage and Shipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4                  5-6.      Adjustment Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 1
           2-22.   Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4               5-9.      Extender Cable Installation . . . . . . . . . 5-1
           2-24.   Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4           5 - 13. Related Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
           2-27. Operation Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4                5-14. Factory Selected Components . . . . . . . . 5 - 2
                                                                                     5- 17. Power Supply Checks and Adjustments . 5- 11
III        OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1             5-18. Calibrated Sweep Time Adjustment . . . 5 - 14
           3-1  Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1              5-19. Log Amplifier Log and
           3-4  Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1                       Linear Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-17
           3-5    HP 8559A Spectrum Analyzer . . . . . . . 3-1                       5-20. 1-dB Offset Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . 5-24
           3-7    HP 853A Spectrum Analyzer Display . . 3-1                          5-21. Bandwidth Filter Adjustments . . . . . . . 5-26
           3-9    HP.IB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 1          5-22. 3-dB Bandwidth Adjustments . . . . . . . 5-33
           3-11 Controls, Indicators, and Connectors . . . . 3-1                     5-23. RF Gain Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-38
           3-12   Control Grouping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1                 5-24. Step Gain Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-41
           3-20 Operating Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2                  5-25. First Converter Adjsutments . . . . . . . . 5-44
           3-21   Signal Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2             5-26. Second Converter Adjustments . . . . . . 5-49
           3-23   Line Power On . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2                5-27. Third Converter Adjustments . . . . . . . . 5-54
           3-27 Front-Panel Adjustment Procedure . . . . . 3-2                       5-28. Frequency Response Adjustments . . . . 5-57




      ii
                                                                  CONTENTS

Section                                                      Page        Section                                                          Page
      5-29. Cal Output and Ref Level Cal                                 VIII SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
             Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-66              8-1.   Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8- 1
      5-30. Frequency Display Adjustments . . . . . . 5-69                     8-3. Schematic Symbols, Terminology.
                                                                                        and Voltage Levels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8- 1
VI    REPLACEABLE PARTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           6- 1         8-5.   Test Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8- 1
      6-1  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6-1          8-7.   Major Assembly Locations . . . . . . . . . . 8- 1
      6-3. Replaceable Parts List . . . . . . . . . . . . .       6-1          8-9.   Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8- 1
      6-6. Ordering Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       6-1          8-10. General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
                                                                               8-12. Printed Circuit Board Edge Connector
VII   MANUAL BACKDATING CHANGES . . . . . . . . 7- 1                                    Contact Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
      7-1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1            The HP 8559A Spectrum Analyzer
      7-4. How to Use This Backdating                                            Theory of Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9
             Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7- 1            Troubleshooting Hints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12
MODEL 8559A                                                                                  GENERAL INFORMATION




                                            SAFETY SYMBOLS

     The following safety symbols are used throughout this manual and in the instrument. Familiarize
     yourself with each of the symbols and its meaning before operating this instrument.

                          Instruction manual symbol. The instrument will be marked with this symbol
                          when it is necessary for the user to refer to the instruction manual in order to
                          protect the instrument against damage. Location of pertinent information
                          within the manual is indicated by use of this symbol in the table of contents.


                  //      Indicates dangerous voltages are present. Be extremely careful.


                          The CAUTION sign denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure which, if
                          not correctly performed or adhered to, could result in damage to or destruction
                          of the instrument. Do not proceed beyond a CAUTION sign until the indicated
                          conditions are fully understood and met.

                          The WARNING sign denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure which,
                          if not correctly performed or adhered to, could result in injury or loss of life.
                          Do not proceed beyond a WARNING sign until the indicated conditions are
                          fully understood and met.



                                 GENERAL SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS




              BEFORE THlS INSTRUMENT IS SWITCHED ON, make sure it has been
              properly grounded through the protective conductor of the ac power cable
              to a socket outlet provided with protective earth contact. Any interruption of
              the protective (grounding) conductor, inside or outside the instrument, or
              disconnection of the protective earth terminal can result in personal injury.



              There are voltages at many points in the instrument which can, if contacted,
              cause personal injury. Be extremely careful. Any adjustments or service pro-
              cedures that require operation of the instrument with protective covers
              removed should be performed only by trained service personnel.



              BEFORE THlS INSTRUMENT IS SWITCHED ON, make sure its primary
              power circuitry has been adapted to the voltage of the ac power source.
              Failure to set the ac power input to the correct voltage could cause damage
              to the instrument when the ac power cable is plugged in.
GENERAL INFORMATION                                                                         MODEL 8559A




                                                                 SPECTRUM ANALYZER
       ADAPTER              SIDE STOP K I T                         OVERLAY K I T
       1250-0780             08558-60131                              5060-0319




                      FIGURE 1-1. HP MODEL8559ASPECTRUM ANALYZER AND ACCESSORIES SUPPLIED
1-0
MODEL 8559A                                                                                  GENERAL INFORMATION




                                           SECTION I
                                      GENERAL INFORMATION

1-1. INTRODUCTION                                              SECTION IV, PERFORMANCE TESTS; con-
                                                               tains the necessary tests to verify that the elec-
1-2. This Operation and Service manual contains                trical operation of the instrument is in accord-
information required to install, operate, test, adjust,        ance with published specifications.
and service the Hewlett-Packard 8559A Spectrum
Analyzer. Figure 1-1 shows the instrument and acces-           SECTION V, ADJUSTMENTS; contains the
sories supplied. This section covers instrument identi-        necessary adjustment procedures to properly
fication, description, options, accessories, specifica-        adjust the instrument after repair.
tions, and other basic information.
                                                               SECTION VI, REPLACEABLE PARTS; con-
                                                               tains the information necessary to order parts
1-3. DESCRIPTION                                               and/or assemblies for the instrument.

                                                               SECTION VII, MANUAL BACKDATING
1-4. The H P 8559A displays the amplitude and fre-             CHANGES; contains backdating information
quency of each component of an input signal on a               to make this manual compatible with earlier
CRT. This display gives quantitative information               equipment configurations.
often not available from a conventional oscilloscope.
The H P 8559A is capable of measuring signals from             SECTION VIII, SERVICE; contains schematic
- 112 dBm to + 30 dBm over a frequency range of                diagrams, block diagrams, component location
10 MHz to 21 GHz.                                              illustrations, circuit descriptions, and trouble-
                                                               shooting information to aid in repair of the
1-5. The complete measuring system includes the                instrument.
H P 8559A Spectrum Analyzer plugged into a com-
patible Hewlett-Packard display mainframe.                1-8. On the title page of this manual, below the
                                                          manual part number, is a microfiche part number.
                                                          This number may be used to order 4- by 6-inch
1-6. MANUAL ORGANIZATION                                  microfilm transparencies of the manual. Each micro-
                                                          fiche contains up to 60 photo-duplicates of the man-
                                                          ual pages. The microfiche package also includes the
1-7. This manual is divided into eight sections as        latest Manual Updating supplement.
follows:
                                                          1-9. SPECIFICATIONS
     SECTION I, GENERAL INFORMATION;
     contains the instrument description and specifi-     1-10. Instrument specifications are listed in Table
     cations, explains accessories and options, and       1-1. These specifications are the performance stand-
     lists recommended test equipment.                    ards or limits against which the instrument is tested.
                                                          Table 1-2 lists supplemental characteristics. Supple-
     SECTION II, INSTALLATION AND OPER-                   mental characteristics are not specifications but are
     ATION VERIFICATION; contains informa-                typical characteristics included as additional infor-
     tion concerning initial mechanical inspection,       mation for the user.
     preparation for use, operating environment,
     packaging and shipping, and operation verifi-                               NOTE
     cation.
                                                               To ensure that the HP 8559A meets
     SECTION III, OPERATION; contains                          the specifications listed in Table 1-1,
     detailed operating instructions for operation of          performance tests (Section IV) should
     the instrument.                                           be performed every six months.
GENERAL INFORMATION                                                                                    MODEL 8559A


1-11. SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS                                  Manual Updating supplement. This supplement con-
                                                             tains change information that explains how to adapt
1-12. Before operating this instrument, you should           the manual to the newer instrument.
familiarize yourself with the safety markings on the         1-18. In addition to change information, the sup-
instrument and safety instructions in this manual.           plement may contain information for correcting
This instrument has been manufactured and tested             errors in the manual. To keep this manual as current
according to international safety standards. How-            and accurate as possible, Hewlett-Packard recom-
ever, to ensure safe operation of the instrument and         mends that you periodically request the latest Man-
personal safety of the user and service personnel, the       ual Updating supplement. The supplement carries a
cautions and warnings in this manual must be fol-            manual identification block that includes the model
lowed. Refer t o the summary of safety consider-             number, print date of the manual, and manual part
ations at the beginning of this section. Refer also to       number. Complimentary copies of the supplement
individual sections of this manual for detailed safety       are available from Hewlett-Packard. Addresses of
notation concerning the use of the instrument as             Hewlett-Packard offices are located at the back of
described in those individual sections.                      this manual.

1-13.   INSTRUMENTS COVERED BY MANUAL
                                                             1-19.   Manual Backdating Changes
1-14.   Serial Numbers                                       1-20. Instruments manufactured before the print-
                                                             ing of this manual have been assigned serial number
1-15. Attached to the rear of this instrument is a           prefixes other than those for which this manual was
mylar serial number label. The serial number is in           written directly. Manual backdating information is
two parts. The first four digits and letter are the          provided in Section VII to adapt this manual to ear-
serial number prefix; the last five digits are the suf-
                                                             lier serial number prefixes.
fix. (Refer to Figure 1-2.) The prefix is the same for
all identical instruments; it changes only when a            1-21. This information should not be confused
change is made to the instrument. The suffix, how-           with information contained in the yellow Manual
ever, is assigned sequentially and is different for each     Updating supplement, which is intended to adapt
instrument. The contents of this manual apply to             this manual to instruments manufactured after the
                                                             printing of this manual.

                   SERIAL NUMBER
                                                             1-22.   ACCESSORIES SUPPLIED

                                                             1-23. A type-N male to BNC female adapter, H P
                                                             Part Number 1250-0780, is supplied with the stand-
                                                             ard instrument for the use of lightweight cables with
                                                             BNC connectors.

                                                             1-24. Side stop kit, H P Part Number 08558-60131,
                                                             is supplied to prevent the spectrum analyzer from
         FIGURE 1-2. TYPICALSERIAL NUMBER LABEL
                                                             sliding out of the mainframe. When the side stops
                                                             are installed, the plug-in cannot be removed from the
instruments with the serial number prefix(es) listed         mainframe. Refer to Section II for installation or
under SERIAL NUMBERS on the title page.                      removal of the side stops.

1-16.   Manual Updating Supplement                           1-25. Three graticule overlays provide the operator
                                                             with reference-level labels for the CRT. H P Part
1-17. An instrument manufactured after the print-            Number 5020-8565 is the overlay for H P 180-series
ing of this manual might have a serial number prefix         display mainframes. H P Part Number 5020-8566 is
that is not listed on the title page. This unlisted serial   the overlay for H P 181-series display mainframes.
number prefix indicates the instrument is different          H P Part Number 5020-8567 is the overlay for H P
from those described in this manual. The manual for          182-series display mainframes. For proper installa-
this newer instrument is accompanied by a yellow             tion of the graticule overlay, refer to Section II.
MODEL 8559A                                                                                          GENERAL INFORMATION


                                    TABLE 1-1. HP MODEL8569ASPECIFICATIONS (1 OF 4)



                                                SPECIFICATIONS

         FREQUENCY SPECIFICATIONS                                Frequency Readout Resolution
                                                                    1 MHz

     FREQUENCY RANGE                                              Frequency Span Accuracy
                                                                     k 5% of displayed frequency separation
      10 MHz to 21 GHz, covered in six pushbutton-
      selectable ranges:
                                                              SPECTRAL RESOLUTION AND STABILITY
                                          Highest             ResolutionBandwidths
      Frequency      Mixing     Lowest
                                                                Eight selectable resolution (3-dB) bandwidths in
         Band        Mode      Freq (GHz)   Freq
                                [ALT IF]                        1-3 sequence from 1 kHz to 3 MHz. Bandwidth
         GHz           (n)                 (GHz)                may be selected independently or coupled with
                                   0.010    3.060               frequency span. Optimum ratio of frequency
                                 [0.025]                        span to resolution bandwidth is indicated by
                                   6.035    9.060               alignment of markers (X) the two controls.
                                                                                            on
                                 [6.020]
                                   3.033   9.120                 Resolution Bandwidth Accuracy:
                                 [3.048]                         Individual resolution bandwidth 3-dB points:
                                   9.058   15.120                < 15% (< 30% for 3-MHz bandwidth)
                                  [9.043]
                                   6.055   15.180                Selectivity:
                                  [6.070]                        60-dB/3-dB resolution bandwidth ratio:       <15: 1
                                  12.080   21.000
                                 [12.065]                        Stability
     FREQUENCY SPANS                                             For fundamental mixing (n = 1 - or 1+ ):
                                                                   Residual FM:
     Full Span (F)                                                 <2 kHz p-p in 0.1 second'
       Entire frequency band displayed with frequency              Noise Sidebands:
                                                                    2 7 0 dB down, >30 kHz from center of CW
       of tunable marker indicated by Frequency GHz
       readout.                                                    signal with 1 kHz resolution bandwidth and
                                                                    video filter at MAX (not in detent).
     Per Division (MHz/Div, kHz/Div)                               Video Filter
       14 frequency scale calibrations in 1-2-5 sequence           Post-detection low-pass filter averages displayed
       from 10 kHz/div to 200 MHz/div. Center fre-                 noise for a smooth trace. The MAX (detent)
       quency is set with the TUNING control and indi-             position selects a video filter bandwidth of
       cated by the FREQUENCY GHz readout.                         approximately 1.5 Hz for noise level measure-
     Zero Span (0)                                                 ment.
       Analyzer functions as a manually tuned receiver,
       at the frequency indicated by the FREQUENCY
       GHz readout, for time-domain display of signal
       modulation.                                                     AMPLITUDE SPECIFICATIONS
     FREQUENCYACCURACY
     Tuning Accuracy
       Frequency GHz readout (center or marker fre-            AMPLITUDE RANGE
                                                                 - 111 dBm to + 30 dBm.
       quency), after zeroing on the LO feedthrough:
                           ?
       0.01 - 3.0 GHz:       (1 MHz + 0.3% of center
       frequency)         &
       3.0 - 21.0 GHz:       (5 MHz + 0.2% of center           '<2 kHz p-p in 0.1 second in a 180-series display main-
        frequency)                                              frame with 220/240 line voltage.
GENERAL INFORMATION                                                                                                MODEL 8559A


                                      TABLE 1-1. HP MODEL 8559A SPECIFICATIONS (2 OF 4)



     Maximum lnput (without damage) Levels                       Calibrator Output
       Total Power:                                                - 10 dBm +- 0.3 dB (into S(X2)
       +20 dBm (O.lW, 2.2 Vrms) with 0 dB input                    35 MHz +- 400 kHz
      attenuation
       +30 dBm (lW, 7.1 Vrms) with 2 10 dB input
      attenuation                                                Reference Level
      DC: +-7.1V                                                   10-dB steps and a 12-dB vernier for calibrated
      AC (


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