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COSMAC_VIP_Instruction_Manual_1978


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                    nell         Solid
                                 State




RCA COSMAC VIP CDP188711
Instruction Manual


   ~
   II IIIII




                     0000
                     Video Monitor




VIP-311              Suggested Price $5.00
RCA COSMAC VIP CDP18S7i1
Instruction Manual




RCA Solid State Division, Somerville, N. J. 08876


Copyright 1978 by RCA Corporation
(All rights reserved under Pan-American Copyright Convention)



Printed in USA/2-78


VIP-311
ACKNOWLEDGMENT

  COSMAC VIP has heen created by Joe
Weisbecker of the RCA Laboratories, Princeton,
N .J. so that everyone can have fun and useful per-
sonal computer experiences. The elegant and simple
hardware system design and the powerful video
output together with the customized CHIP-8
language interpreter constitute a fresh and promising
approach to personal computers.

  If questions arise regarding the VIP software or
hardware, write to

      VIP
      RCA Solid State Division
      Box 3200
      Somerville, N.J. 08876

or telephone

      Area code 201      526-6141




Information furnished by RCA is believed to be
accurate and reliable. However, no responsibility is
assumed by RCA for its use; nor for any infringe-
ment.s of patents or ~ther rights of third parties
which may result from its use. No license is granted
by implication or otherwise under any patent or
patent rights of RCA.




Trademark(s) Registered (f)
Marca(s) Registrada(s)
__________________________________________________________________-3



                                       Contents

      I.    Getting Started ........................................................... 5
               What This Manual Covers .............................................. 5
               'The Power Supply ..................................................... 6
               What You See .............' ............................................ 7
               Turning It On .....................................' .................... 7

     II.    COSMAC VIP Operation .................................................. 9
               Using the Operating System ............................................. 9
               Memory Write ........................................................ 9
               Memory Read ....................................................... 10
               Tape Write .......................................................... 10
               Tape Read .......................................................... 10
               Testing Your Cassette System .......................................... 11

     III.   CHIP-8 Language Programming ........................................... 13
               BranchInstructions ................................................... 13
               How to Change and Use the Variables .................................... 13
               Using the Display Instructions .......................................... 14
               Applying CHIP-8 .................................................... 16
               Some Program Ideas .................................................. 17

     IV.    Machine Language Programming .......................................... 19
               VIP Machine Coding ................................................. 19
               Putting Machine Coding and CHIP-8 Language Together .................. 19
               Machine Language Programming Summed Up ............................ 20

     V.     Logic Description ....................................................... 21
               How Memory is Addressed ............................................. 21
               How the Input/Output Works .......................................... 21

     VI.    Expansion Considerations and Connections .................................. 23
               Using the Byte Input/Output ........................................... 23
               Using the Expansion Interface .......................................... 24
               Some Expansion Ideas ................................................ 24

     VII.   Troubleshooting Hints .................................................... 27
               No Sound ........................................................... 27
               No Display .......................................................... 27
               Other Problems ...................................................... 27
               Signal Tracing ....................................................... 27
               Last Resorts ......................................................... 28

     Appendix A - Test and Operating Data ............................................ 29
               Byte Pattern for Displaying "COSMAC" ................................. 29
               Beeper Program ...................................................... 29
               Cassette Attachment Diagram .......................................... 30
               Cassette Phase Test ................................................... 30
               Cassette Data Test .................................................... 31
               Cassette Recording Guidelines .......................................... 32
               Memory Test Program ................................................ 32
4~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~RCA,COSMACVIPlnstru~ionManual


                                        Contents (Continued)

    Appendix B - Operating System .................................................. 33
                 Operating System Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......... 33
                 Operating System Register Table ........................................ 34
                 Operating System Summary ............................................ 34

    Appendix C - CHIP-8 Interpreter ................................................ 35
                 CHIP-8 Interpreter Listing ..................................... . ...... 35
                 CHIP-8 Memory Map ......................................... . ...... 36
                 CDP1802 Register Use for CHIP-8 Interpreter ............................ 36
                 CHIP-8/0perating System Standard Digit Display Format .......... . ...... 37
                 CHIP-8 User Notes ................................................... 38

    Appendix D - Video Games ..................................................... 39
                  1. VIP Kaleidoscope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ................ 40
                  2. VIP Video Display Drawing Game. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ................ 41
                  3. VIP Wipe Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ................ 42
                  4. VIP Space Intercept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ................ 43
                  5. VIP 4096-Bit Picture ............................................... 44
                  6. VIP Figure Shooting at Moving Target .............. . ................ 45
                  7. VIP Tick-Tack-Toe Game .......................................... 46
                  8. VIP Spooky Spot. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ................ 48
                  9. VIP Jackpot ...................................................... 49
                 10. VIP Snake Race. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ................ 51
                 11. VIP Card Matching Game. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ................ 52
                 12. VIP Armored Vehicle Clash ........................................ '.54
                 13. VIP Hi-Lo ....................................................... 56
                 14. VIP Hex Reflex ................................................... 57
                 15. VIP Dot-Dash .................................................... 58
                 16. VIP A-Mazing .................................................... 60
                 17. VIP Deduce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ................ 62
                 18. VIP Shooting Stars ................................................ 63
                 19. VIP Strike-9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ................ 64
                 20. VIP Card Game (like the well-known acey-ducey) ...................... 66
    Appendix E - Logic Diagrams ................................................... 67
                Fig. E-l - Microprocessor and Display Interface Circuits .................... 68
                Fig.E-2 - ROM Circuits and Expansion Interface ......................... 69
                Fig. E-3 - Keyboard, Decoding, Audio Oscillator, and Cassette
                           Interface Circuits ............................................ 70
                Fig. E-4 - RAM Circuits ............................................... 71
                Fig. E-5 - Power Supply Circuit and Byte Input/Output Interface ............ 72

    Appendix F - Board Layout, Parts List, and Assembly Instructions .................... 73
             1. Printed Circuit Board Layout ........................................ 74
             2. Parts List for RCA COSMAC VIP CDP18S711 .......................... 75
             3. COSMAC VIP Expansion Notes ....................................... 77
                       a. Soldering the PC Board ...................................... 77
                       b. Voltage Regulator Option ..................................... 77
                       c. Additional 2048-Byte RAM Option ............................. 77

        Appendix G - Data Sheets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
                CDP1832 512-Word x 8-Bit Static Read-Only Memory ..................... 81
                CDP1861 Video Display Controller (Video Interface)' ...................... 85
                CDP1802 COSMAC Microprocessor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... 97
__________________          ~   _________________________________________________ 5




                                  I. Getting Started



  COSMAC VIP (Video Interface Processor)                   With COSMAC VIP you can easily create pictures
CDP18S711 is a complete computer on a single            on the display screen and move them around. This
printed-circuit card. It includes the following:        feature is invaluable for video games and not usually
                                                        available with computers costing several times as
    *RCA CDP1802 Microprocessor (91 in-                 much. The software you need to use your computer is
      structions)                                       provided free instead of at added cost or not at all.
    *2048-byte RAM                                      Simplified operation was a primary design goal so
    *Built-in hex keyboard (modem reliable touch.       that you don't have to waste a lot of time learning and
      pad type)                                         remembering complex operating procedures.
    *Graphic video display interface (standard video    COSMAC VIP uses state-of-the-art devices coupled
      output)                                           with an efficient design. Full expansion capability
    *100-byte-per-second audio cassette interface       allows you to inexpensively tailor COSMAC VIP to
    *Regulated power supply (wall-pack type)            specific applications such as model railroad control,
    *Crystal clock                                      music synthesis, or color graphics. You will800ndis-
    *Sound circuits (for signal tones and games)        cover that COSMAC VIP provides a refreshingly
    *512-byte ROM operating system                      new, lower-cost alternative to conventional computers
    *Comprehensive documentation                        which have been aimed more toward mathematics
    *20 ready-to-use video game programs                and business than fun.
    *Unique CHIP ..8 language (31 easy-to-use in-
      structions)
    *On-card RAM expansion up to 4096 bytes
                                                        What This Manual Covers
    *On-card parallel 1/0 port                            -This manual serves several purposes. It lets you get
    *Connector for extensive external expansion         started playing video games with minimum effort.
      capability                                        Just set up your system as described in this -section
                                                        and learn how to use the operating system and
  COSMAC VIP was designed for home hobby use.           cassette interface as described in the next section. You
Just add an inexpensive video display and an audio      can immediately use all the video games in Appendix
cassette recorder for program storage. You don't need   D without going any further.
expensive, hidden extras such as power supply,
computer terminal, external keyboard, or additional        If you want to learn to write your own programs,
RAM. COSMAC VIP provides everything needed for          Section III describes an easy language to start with
years of creative computer fun for the whole family.    called CHIP-8. Most of the programs in Appendix D
With COSMAC VIP you're immediately ready to             were designed using this language. CHIP-8 looks
play video games, experiment with computer art or       somewhat like machine language but is quicker to
animation, write your own programs with a new           learn and easier to use than many of the more
language called CHIP-8, or get hands-on experience      common high-level languages. It also requires much
using machine language.                                 less RAM, which saves you a lot of money. CHIP-
6~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~RCACOSMACVIP Instru~ion                                                                  Manual




8 includes a real time clock, random number                    will facilitate setting up the cassette system and iden-
generator, decimal conversion, and digit or graphic            tifying hardware problems in the rare case where they
display capability. It only uses 512 bytes of RAM              occur. Hex notation is used in this manual unless
leaving over 1024 bytes for programs in a 2048-byte            noted otherwise. (One byte equals two hex digits.)
system. (You can get an additional 2048 bytes of
RAM by plugging four more RAM chips into your
card.)
                                                               The Power Supply
  With the aid of the User Manual for the CDP1802
COSMAC Microprocessor, MPM-201, you can
explore the fascinating world of machine language                 The output wires of the internally regulated power
programming. You can even combine machine                      converter supplied with the COSMAC VIP CD-
language programs with CHIP-8 programs or                      P18S711 are connected to the +V DC and GND
develop your own interpretive languages.                       pads at the back left comer of the PC card. The
                                                               power converter output is regulated + 5 V DC at 600
                                                               rnA. If you wish to add more RAM to your system,
   For hardware hackers, COSMAC VIP provides                   however, you may need a higher-current power
complete external interface capabilities. Some                 supply. A 2048-byte system requires about 350 rnA
suggestions f-or inexpensive external devices and              (600 rnA worst case). A 4096-byte system should
applications are listed in Section VI. Logic diagrams,         require average current of about 600 rnA. If,
data sheets, trouble-shooting hints, and test programs         however, your RAM chips require above average
are provided so that you can e~plore the hardware in           power, you may need to supply as much as 900 rnA at
as much detail as you want.                                    5 V DC, regulated. You can also use your own
                                                               unregulated 8 to 10 V DC power supply by adding
  This manual assumes that you are familiar with               voltage regulator U 28 (plus heatsink) to your
computer basics from reading one or more of the                COSMAC VIP card and cutting the printed circuit
excellent magazines devoted to home computing. You             link called LKI. Never apply more than +5 V DC to
should understand RAM, ROM, memory ad-                         the card unless the U 28 regulator has been added and
dressing, instructions, bytes, etc. The use of a scope         link LK 1 cut.




                         Photograph of COSMAC VIP (Video Interface Processor) CDP18S711
                         The cables in the upper right are for the video display and for cassette
                         operation. Cable on the upper left goes to the power converter.
I. Getting Started _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 7



What You See                                             C pressed and the Q light should be on. When you
                                                         release key C the tone and Q light should both go off.
   You must now decide on the video display for your     (The tone occurs whenever the Q light is on.) You
computer. The video pad at the back right comer of       should now see a random pattern of small square
the COS MAC VIP card provides a video signal which       spots on the display. Push hex keys 8008 in sequence
you can connect directly to the high-impedance input     and you should see 8008 at the bottom left of the
of most standard video monitors. The horizontal sync     screen and 64 at the lower right. Adjust your display
frequency is 15,720 Hz and the vertical sync             controls for the best picture (white spots on a black
frequency is 60 Hz. One solution to your video display   background). You can experiment with changing the
need is a commercial video monitor having a suitable     values of Rl, R2, and R4 on the COSMAC VIP card
input -- not rf or antenna input. Another option is      to improve picture quality although this step
your TV receiver used with a relatively inexpensive      shouldn't be necessary. Certain modulators work
FCC-approved modulator. Do not use a standard TV         better with an R4 of 1 kilohm instead of 200 ohms. If
receiver with the VIP output connected to the VHF or     you don't get a video picture refer to Section VII for
UHF antenna terminals. Do not



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