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CRAY Y -MP C90   TM   System Programmer
                        Reference Manual


                             Cray Research Proprietary

                         Cray Research, Inc.
--   -   --- -   ---   ------~~~ -

                                    Any shipment to a country outside of the United States requires a
                                    Jetter of assurance from Cray Research, Inc.

                           This document is the property of Cray Research, Inc. The use of this
                           document is subject to specific license rights extended by Cray Research,
                           Inc. to the owner or lessee of a Cray Research, Inc. computer system or
                           other licensed party according to the terms and conditions of the license
                           and for no other purpose.

                           Cray Research, Inc. Unpublished Proprietary Information -               All Rights

                           Autotasking, CRAY, Cray Ada, CRAY Y-MP, CRAY-l, HSX, MPGS,
                           SSD, UniChem, UNICOS, and X-MP EA are federally registered
                           trademarks and CCI, CF77, CFT, CFT2, CFT77, COS, CRAYS-MP,
                           CRAY X-MP, CRAY XMS, CRAY-2, Cray C++, Cray/REELlibrarian,
                           CRInform, CRI/TurboKiva, CSIM, CVT, Delivering the power. _.,
                           Docview, lOS, OLNET, RQS, SEGLDR, SMARTE, SUPERCLUSTER,
                           SUPERLINK, and Trusted UNICOS are trademarks of
                           Cray Research, Inc.

                           Requests for copies of Cray Research, Inc. publications should be
                           directed to:

                           CRAY RESEARCH, INC.
                           6251 South Prairie View Road
                           Chippewa Falls, WI 54729

                           Comments about this publication should be directed to:

                           CRAY RESEARCH, INC.
                           Hardware Publications and Training
                           770 Industrial Blvd.
                           Chippewa Falls, WI 54729
Record of Revision
Each time this manual is revised and reprinted, all changes issued against the previous version are incorporated into the new
version, and the new version is assigned an alphabetic level which is indicated in the publication number on each page of the

Changes to part of a page are indicated by a change bar in the margin directly opposite the change. A change bar in the footer
indicates that most, if not all, of the page is new. If the manual is rewritten, the revision level changes but the manual does not
contain change bars.

REVISION                                 DESCRIPTION

                                         February 1992. Original printing.

CSM-0500-000                                     Cray Research Proprietary                                                            iii

               The CRAY Y -MP C90 System Programmer Reference Manual describes
               the hardware architecture and functions of the CRAY Y -MP C90
               computer system manufactured by Cray Research, Inc. (CRI). This
               manual is written primarily for system analysts and system programmers.
               The primary goal of this manual is to explain and define the special
               hardware features of the system in enough detail to help programmers
               write and optimize program code.

               This manual is divided into the following tabbed sections.

               Section 1, "Computer System Overview," introduces and describes the
               CRAY Y-MP C90 system components and support equipment.

               Section 2, "CPU Shared Resources," describes the hardware shared by
               all central processing units (CPUs). Its primary emphasis is to define the
               functions, organization, and special hardware features of central memory,
               the I/O section, the interprocessor communication section, and the
               real-time clock. It also explains the shared paths access priority.

               Section 3, "CPU Control," describes the basic CPU operations. The
               section explains the exchange mechanism in detail and defines and
               explains the deadstart, instruction fetch, and instruction issue sequences.
               The operations of the programmable clock, the status registers, and the
               performance monitor are also described.

               Section 4, "CPU Computation Section," describes the CPU registers,
               functional units, and functional unit operations. Logical operations and
               integer and floating-point arithmetic are defined and explained in detail.

               Section 5, "Parallel Processing Features," describes the parallel
               processing features most closely related to the hardware. This includes
               information and examples of pipelining and segmentaion, functional unit
               independence, and mUltiprocessing and multitasking.

               Section 6, "Maintenance Channel," explains the operation of the
               maintenance channel used to troubleshoot system problems.

CSM-0500-000          Cray Research Proprietary                                              v
 Preface                   CRAY Y-MP C90 System Programmer Reference Manual

           Section 7, "CPU Instructions," contains detailed descriptions of all
           instructions executed by the CRAY Y -MP C90 CPU. The instructions
           are listed by octal code starting with instruction 000000 and ending with
           instruction 177ijk. Special cases, hold issue conditions, and execution
           times are explained for each instruction or group of instructions.

           The following conventions are used throughout this manual.

           Convention          Description
           Lowercase italic    Variable information.
           x                   An unused value.
           n                   A specified value.
           (value)             The contents of the register or memory location
                               designated by value.
           Register bit        Register bits are numbered from right to left as
           designators         powers of 2. Bit 2

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