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T-0202-CRAY_1S_Computer_System_IO_Subsystem_Station_Operators_WorkbookTraining-UNDATED.OCR


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!
          CRAY-I S.
     COnpUTER SYSTCil
    liD SUBSYSTE~ STATION
      OPERATOR'S ~ORKBOOK
          T-0202
            CHAPTER 1
1/0 SUBSYSTEM HARDWARE OVERVIEW
                  INPUT/OUTPUT SUBSYSTEM

INCREASES CRAY-! S CPU THROUGHPUT BY REDUCING ITS     1/0   AND
FRONT-END RESPONSIBILITIES.


STREAMS DATA TO CENTRAL MEMORY OVER AN 810 MBIT/S CHANNEL. '

PROVIDES ACCESS TO ADDITIONAL PERIPHERALS.      (TAPES)


FUNCTIONS AS A MAINTENANCE CONTROL UNIT.


DRIVES UP TO 48 DD-29 DISK DRIVES FOR MASS STORAGE.

ALLOWS OPERATOR CONTROL OF COS.

COLLECTS AND CONCENTRATES DATA FROM FRONT-ENDS.

PROVIDES FOR JOB AND DATA ENTRY.

DISTRIBUTES CPU OUTPUT TO SLOWER PERIPHERAL EXPANDER DEVICES.

CONSISTS OF TWO TO FOUR   1/0   PROCESSORS WITH A SHARED BUFFER MEMORY.




                            1.2
:E
W
t-
(/)
>-
(/)
CQ
:::J
(/)

0
.........
~




            ~
~

    I
            -
            ~

~



W
0:::
:::J
t9
~

LL
                     INDIVIDUAL 1/0 PROCESSOR

LOCAL MEMORY:

            65 536 WORDS
                 J


            16 BITSIWORD
            2.43 GIGABIT BAND WIDTH


COMPUTATION SECTION:

            INSTRUCTION CONTROL NETWORK
            2 FUNCTIONAL UNITS (ADDER AND SHIFTER)
            LOGICAL 'AND' OPERATION
            512 OPERAND REGISTERS
            1 PROGRAMMER-VISIBLE ACCUMULATOR
            SINGLE ADDRESS MODE
            76 MEGAHZ CYCLE TIME


1/0   SECTION:

            6 DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS (DMA) PORTS
            810 MEGABIT/S MAXIMUM TRANSFER RATE PER PORT
            SEVERAL CHANNELS MAY MULTIPLEX INTO ONE PORT




                               1.4
                MODEL NUMBERING CONVENTION



CRAY-l S/1200 THROUGH 14400 CONTAIN AN     1/0   SUBSYSTEM




FIRST DIGIT INDICATES SIZE OF CENTRAL MEMORY IN MEGAWORDS




SECOND DIGIT INDICATES NUMBER OF   1/0   PROCESSORS

          EXAMPLE:

                       CRAY-l S/2300 HAS 2 MILLION WORDS
                       OF CENTRAL MEMORY AND 3 1/0 PROCESSORS.




                         1.5
                        CRAY-! S/x300


THREE PROCESSOR SYSTEM

      1. MASTER   1/0    PROCESSOR (MIOP)

               CONTROLS FRONT END-INTERFACES.

               HAS THREE DISPLAY CONSOLES.

               HAS AN EXPANDER CHANNEL WHICH MULTIPLEXES A PRINTER
               AND A MAG TAPE UNIT.

               CONNECTS TO BUFFER MEMORY THROUGH A DMA CHANNEL.

               EXCHANGES CONTROL SIGNALS WITH CPU OVER A LOW-SPEED
               CRAY-! S CHANNEL PAIR.

               COMMUNICATES WITH OTHER lOPs OVER ACCUMULATOR CHANNELS.

               MAINTAINS SYSTEM INFORMATION ERROR LOG.

               COORDINATES ACTIONS OF CPU AND OTHER lOPs.

       2.   BUFFER I/O PROCESSOR (BIOP)

               HANDLES DATA TRANSFERS BETWEEN CPU AND I/O SUBSYSTEM

               CONNECTS DIRECTLY TO CENTRAL MEMORY.

               CONNECTS TO BUFFER MEMORY THROUGH A DMA CHANNEL.

               COMMUNICATES WITH OTHER lOPs OVER ACCUMULATOR CHANNELS.

               DRIVES UP TO 16 DD-29 DISK DRIVES.

                                 1.6
     3.   BLOCK MULTIPLEXER I/O PROCESSOR   (XIOP)

               CONNECTS TO BUFFER MEMORY THROUGH A DMA CHANNEL.

               COMMUNICATES WITH OTHER rops OVER ACCUMULATOR CHANNELS.

               HANDLES 1 TO 16 BLOCK MUX (IBM COMPATIBLE) CHANNELS.




--




                            1 .7
                                                110 3
                                                FRO'lT-B'{O

                                                INTERFACES

                                                                                                                           I
                                                                                                                       I
                                                                                                                   I


                                                                                             ,
                                                                                             f
                                                                                                  .   -.
                                                                                                               I


                                                                                             r             "
                                                              ~1IOP                         EXPANDER
                                                                                            CHASSIS




1 TO 16             1 TO 4                                BIOP
DD-29                                                                                         BUFFER
DISK UNITS                                                                                    MSVDRY



1 TO 16
CHANNELS
             .. -                                         XIOP




                              - - - - EXTERNAL CHMNEL
                              ====:. 810 MB I TS/ S I1v1A CHl\NNEL
                               II I \ I    50   MBITS/S   CRAY-l S CHANNEL PAIR
                              --           ACCLI~ULATOR    CHANNEL
                               , \ \ \ 810 ME I 1.S/S     ~1SVDRY     CHANNEL




                         FIGURE 1-2       BLOCK DIAGRftM OF       S/13CO, S/2300   AND   S/4300       SYSTEMS
                                          WITH BLOCK MULTIPLEXER CHANNELS.


                                                       1.8
         CHAPTER 2
OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW
                             FUNCTIONS


PERFORMS I/O BETWEEN CPU AND PERIPHERALS




MANAGES FRONT-END COMMUNICATIONS




PERFORMS STATION FUNCTIONS




DEADSTARTS CPU




                               2.2
                     CHARACTERISTICS


MULTI-TASKING

     UP TO 32 TASKS ACTIVE AT A TIME




NONPRE-EMPTIVE SCHEDULING



SIMPLE 16 LEVEL TASK PRIORITY SCHEME



INTERRUPT DRIVEN



EXTENSIVE USE OF OVERLAYS




                            2.3
                         SYSTEM COMPONENTS

KERNEL
     NUCLEUS OF OPERATING SYSTEM.
     LOCAL MEMORY RESIDENT.
     EXECUTES IN EACH I/O PROCESSOR WITH MINOR MODIFICATIONS.
     RESPONSIBLE FOR:
          ACTIVITY MANAGEMENT
          INTER-ACTIVITY COMMUNICATION
          RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
          INTERRUPT HANDLING
          INTER-PROCESSOR COMMUNICATION

OVERLAYS
     RESIDE IN BUFFER MEMORY.
     READ INTO LOCAL r,1EMORY ~~HEN NEEDED.
     MAKE UP THE BULK OF THE SYSTEM.
     NOT ALL USED BY ANY ONE PROCESSOR.

     DISK   SUBSYSTE~l
            RESIDES MOSTLY IN BUFFER MEMORY AS OVERLAYS.
            EXECUTES IN BICP OR DIOP.

     STATION SUBSYST8~
           RESIDES IN BUFFER MEMORY AS OVERLAYS.
          EXECUTES MOSTLY IN MIOP.

     CONCENTRATOR SUBSYSTEM
          RESIDES IN BUFFER MEMORY AS OVERLAYS.
          EXECUTES MOSTLY IN MIOP.

     INTERACTIVE CONCENTRATOR SUBSYSTEM
          RESIDES IN BUFFER MEMORY AS OVERLAYS.
          EXECUTES MOSTLY IN MIOP.

     TAPE SUBSYSTEM
          RESIDES IN BUFFER MEMORY AS OVERLAYS.
          EXECUTES IN XIOP.
                           2.4
                                                                      BUFFER
                            MIOP                                      MEMORY
                         KERNEL

f-----                  --------


r- -           _CQNCErilRAJOB - - -
f--       __            STATION ___ _                           OVERLAYS!.            I
                                                                                      I

    I NTERACnVE--'
      ~   .-   -    -
                                   CON-C'~-
                                   -:-              .             -- DISK SUBSYSTEM   !

                                                                  -- CONCENTRATOR
                            BIOP
                                                                  -- STATION
                        KERNEL                                    -- INTERACTIVE      I




                                                                       C8NCENT~ATOR   I




f-o------- -                                        VLL//         -- TAPE SUBSYSTEM   I
I      DISK SUBSYSTEM    ;                                                            !

F   ~ -siAI~J3(Wc~ -~NiR0

                            DIOP
                        KERNEL




                            XIOP
                         KERNEL


r----- -
1---            -       -    -
                TAPE SUBSYSTEM
                                    -     -




          FIGURE 2-1                     lOS SOFTWARE CONFIGURATION
                                              2.5
          KERNEL CONSOLE CALLABLE OVERLAYS


CERTAIN OVERLAY ACTIVITIES MAY BE CREATED BY KEYING IN OVERLAY
NAME AT KERNEL CONSOLE.



KERNEL CREATES ACTIVITY FOR THE OVERLAY AND PUTS IT ON lOP
CENTRAL PROCESSOR QUEUE.



ACTIVITY THEN PROCEEDS AS ANY OTHER ACTIVITY.



OPERATOR MAY USE THIS FACILITY TO:

          DEADSTART CPU
          BRING UP THE STATION
          START A CONCENTRATOR
          ENTER THE INTERACTIVE CONCENTRATOR
          RUN TEST ROUTINES




                           2.6
                      lOS STATION

                      FUNCTIONS


PROVIDES A MEANS FOR OPERATOR-CPU COMMUNICATION.

          CONTROLS OPERATOR CONSOLES



MAY BE USED AS A BATCH JOB ENTRY STATION

          JOBS OR DATASETS STAGED FROM TAPE



MAY ACCEPT CPU OUTPUT AND DISTRIBUTE IT TO MAG TAPE OR PRINTER



ALLOWS ON-LINE DEBUGGING OF CPU




                          2,8
                    CHARACTERISTICS


RESIDES IN BUFFER MEMORY AS OVERLAYS.



EXECUTES MOSTLY IN MIOP WITH SOME HIGH SPEED TRANSFERS THROUGH BIOP.



MAY HAVE MORE THAN ONE STATION ACTIVE AT A TIME.
          EACH STATION MUST HAVE A DEDICATED CONSOLE.
          THEY MUST SHARE THE EXPANDER PERIPHERALS.
          TWO OR MORE CONSOLES MAY BE SUPPORTED BY ONE
          STATION.



COMMUNICATES WITH CPU IN STANDARD CRAY MESSAGE FORMAT.
          APPEARS TO BE JUST ANOTHER FRONT-END STATION TO CPU.



OPERATOR COMMANDS VIRTUALLY IDENTICAL TO THOSE OF THE PRESENT
DATA GENERAL ECLIPSE STATION.




                           2.9
              OVERVIEW OF STATION MESSAGE FLOW

I.   OPERATOR INITIATES A STATION COMMAND.

2.   MIOP BUILDS A MESSAGE.

3.   MIOP WRITES THIS MESSAGE TO BUFFER MEMORY.
                                                                    "-


4.   BIOP SENDS THE MESSAGE TO CENTRAL MEMORY.

5.   MIOP TELLS CPU MESSAGE IS IN CENTRAL MEMORY.

6.   CPU PROCESSES MESSAGE AND BUILDS A RESPONSE.

7.   BIOP READS RESPONSE MESSAGE AND PUTS IT IN BUFFER MEMORY.

8.   MIOP READS RESPONSE MESSAGE IN FROM BUFFER MEMORY.

9.   IF   APPROPRIATE~   CONSOLE IS UPDATED WITH NEW INFORMATION.




                                2. "10
                      CONCENTRATOR

                       FUNCTIONS


ALLOWS APPARENT DIRECT COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE CPU AND
A FRONT-END.

     LOOKS LIKE A CRAY-! S CHANNEL PAIR TO FRONT-END.

          THUS NO CHANGES NECESSARY TO EXISTING
          FRONT-END STATIONS~


MAY REDUCE THE NUMBER OF INTERRUPTS TO THE CPU PER FRONT-END
MESSAGE.



WILL REDUCE CENTRAL MEMORY MESSAGE SEGMENT BUFFERS WHEN BACK
DOOR TO DISK IS AVAILABLE.




                         2.12
                    CHARACTERISTICS



RESIDES IN BUFFER MEMORY AS OVERLAYS.



EXECUTES MOSTLY IN MIOP WITH HIGH SPEED TRANSFERS TO CPU
THROUGH BIOP.



ONE ACTIVE CONCENTRATOR FOR EACH FRONT-END CHANNEL PAIR.

     MAY HAVE SEVERAL LOGICAL ID'S LOGGED ON TO ONE
     CONCENTRATOR.

          EACH ID MAY HAVE A DIFFERENT SEGMENT SIZE.



CONTROLLED VIA CONC AND ENDCONC KERNEL CONSOLE COMMANDS.




                           2.13
        CHAPTER 3

KERNEL CONSOLE COMMANDS
THE FOLLOWING OPERATOR COMMANDS PERFORM NON-STATION FUNCTIONS.


THESE ARE ENTERED AT THE KERNEL CONSOLE OF AN lOP.


     CRAY

     STATION

     CONC

     ENDCONC

     START

     CONFIG

     TRACE

     HPLOAD




                            3.2
      INITIALIZES THE INTERFACE BETWEEN THE IDS AND THE CPU.

            THIS IS NECESSARY BEFORE MESSAGES CAN BE
            EXCHANGED.

            PERFORMED IMPLICITLY BY CONC AND START COMMANDS.

STATION GnumJ

      INITIALIZES THE lOS STATION AT CONSOLE
      num. num=O)lJ2 J3

      IF num NOT SPECIFIED J A DEFAULT CONSOLE IS USED.



      INITIALIZES A CONCENTRATOR FOR THE FRONT-END CHANNEL
      PAIR IDENTIFIED BY ch.ch=O)l)2.

      IF ch NOT SPECIFIED) 0 IS USED.
           :..   "I

END CON C LJ Cll J
      TERMINATES CONCENTRATOR chi

      IF ch NOT SPECIFIED) 0 IS USED.




                             3.3
START    S" MT~:n, [,   SV/SYSdSn]l..   r;n~:n2      [SV/pardSn   J
         lSYSdSn                  'J    l ~ardSn
            DEADSTARTS THE CPU ACCORDING TO SPECIFIED COS
            BINARY FILE (sysdsn) AND PARAMETER FILE (pardsn).

            IF DEADSTART IS FROM TAPEJ THE FILES MAY BE SAVED
            IN THE COS AND PAR DIRECTORIES ON DISK.

            REFER TO CHAPTER 5 FOR A DETAILED DISCUSSION OF
            DEADSTART.

CONFIG

            DISPLAYS RESOURCES AND CHANNEL CONFIGURATION
            INFORMATION AT THE KERNEL CONSOLE.

            MAY BE DONE AT ANY lOP KERNEL CONSOLE.

TRACE       command
            ALLOWS OPERATOR TO SELECTIVELY ENABLE/DISABLE
            SELECTED EVENTSJ AND TO PRINT OUT LOCAL AND BUFFER
            MEMORY TRACE BUFFERS.

            MAY BE DONE AT ANY lOP KERNEL CONSOLE.

            REFER TO CHAPTER 6 FOR A DETAILED DISCUSSION OF THE
            COMr~ANDS .


HPLOAD      fn

            LOADS HEADER PAGE DATA FROM TAPE FILE NUMBER fn.


                                 3.4
     CHAPTER 4

lOS STATION COMMANDS
STATION COMMANDS ARE ENTERED AT A DEDICATED STATION CONSOLE.

TERMINATE EACH COMMAND WITH THE RETURN KEY.

THE STATION PROCESSES EACH COMMAND AS IT IS ENTERED AND
IND ICATES COr~PLET ION BY D SPLAY ING THE > PROMPT CHARACTER.
                            I

NORMALLY) STATION COMMANDS ARE DISPLAYED ON THE LOWER THREE
LINES OF THE DISPLAY.

              ALL BUT THREE OF THE REMAINING LINES
              ARE USED TO DISPLAY REQUESTED INFORMATION.

LINE
    1    _CRAY-l ~ ~TATION)_V~R~IQN_l~x~ ___________ _
   ,2    __________STATION !1E~S8.GE.S _________ _
   3

                           DISPLAY AREA



   20
   21
   22    ~ ================----------------------1
   23    )                 COMMAND/RESPONSE AREA
   24   I>

                     FIGURE 4-1.   STATION DISPLAY FORMAT




                             4.2
KEY                   FUNCTION

RETURN       INITIATES THE COMMAND.

RUBOUT      BACKSPACES AND ERASES ONE CHARACTER ON THE LINE.

CONTROL-U   DELETES THE ENTIRE LINE.

+   OR '/   ROLLS DISPLAY FORWARD ONE FRAME IF ENTERED
            AS FIRST CHARACTER OF A LINE.

- OR   <    ROLLS DISPLAY BACKWARD ONE FRAME IF ENTERED
            AS FIRST CHARACTER OF A LINE.

ESC         DISCARDS UNPROCESSED KEYBOARD INPUT AND
            REFRESHES THE ENTIRE SCREEN.

CONTROL-A   RECALLS PREVIOUS COMMAND) EDITED BY ANY
            SUBSEQUENT KEYBOARD INPUT) AND POSITIONS
            THE CURSOR AT THE END OF THE COMMAND.

CONTROL-X    EQUIVALENT TO CONTROL-A AND A RETURN.


            TABLE 4-1.   lOS STATION SPECIAL KEYS




                         4.3
  STATION COMMANDS CAN BE CLASSIFIED AS THREE BASIC TYPES:
                 BATCH ENTRY COMMANDS
                 OPERATOR STATION COMMANDS
                 DISPLAY AND STATUS RESPONSE COMMANDS


          Command                                Function


Station software activation

LOGON                         Establishes communications between a I/O
                              Subsystem station and the CRAY-l CPU

LOGOFF                        Terminates communications between a I/O
                              Subsystem station and the CRAY-l CPU

Staging control

STAGE                         Halts or resumes staging of datasets between
                              CRAY-l CPU and the I/O Subsystem
                              Station.
SUBMIT                        Queues file for staging to CRAY-l mass
                              storage where dataset will be entered into
                              job input queue

SAVE                          Queues a file to CRAY-l mass storage where
                              it will be made a permanent dataset

Miscellaneous control

SNAP                          Copies display screen image to a line printer

END                           Terminates console 'operation

DELAY                         Suspends processing of a command for a
                              specified time interval

CONSOLE                       Adds another MIOP console to the Station
                              software

POLL                          Sets the rate at which control messages are
                              exchanged with the CRAY-l CPU

SET                           Modifies the default value associated with
                              an operator station's ID and TID parameters



                        -TABLE 4-2. BATCH ENTRY COMMAND SUMMARY
                                     4.4
           Command                              Function

Job control

LIMIT                      Sets maximum number of jobs



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