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MILDATA_An_Optimizing_Study_of_a_Modular_Digital_Computer_System_Vol_2_Apr65


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NOTICE: When Government drawings, specifications, or other data
are used for any purpose other than in connection with a definitely re-
lated Government procurement operation, the United States Government
therebyincurs no responsibility nor obligation whatsoever; and the fact
that the Government mayhave formulated, furnished or in any way sup-
plied the said drawings, specifications or other data is not to be re-
garded by implication or otherwise as in any manner licensing the holder
or any other person or corporation, or conveying any rights or per-
mission to manufacture, use or sell any patented invention that may in
any way be related thereto.




"QUALIFIED REQUESTER MAY OBTAIN COPIES OF THIS REPORT
FROM DDC. DDC RELEASE TO OTS NOT AUTHORIZED. fI
           MILDATA STUDY

           Final Report

            Volume II

12 August 1963 to 30 September 1964




A study of advanced techniques in
 all aspects of data processing
 applicable to CClS in the time
       frame 1975-1985.




      DA-36-039-AMC-03275 (E)

           SCL - 4529

           Submitted

       30 September 1964

           Published

         15 April 1965




        Norman Nisenoff

        Program Manager
                     TABLE OF CONTENTS

APPENDIX A.   APPLICATIONS                            A-l

              A.l   Introduction                      A-l

              A.2   Personnel and Administration      A-3

              A.3   Logistics                         A-10

              A.4   Fire Support                      A-18

              A.S   Intelligence                      A-23

              A.6   Command and Control               A-26

         B.   SYSTEMS ANALYSIS                        B-1

              B.l   Introduction                      B-1

              B.2   Discussion of Current Large
                    Systems                           B-1

                    B.2.l      Introduction           B-1

                    B.2.2      The IBM 7950 System    B-1

                    B.2 .. 3   Typical Application
                               for a Non-Arithmetic
                               Mode Processor

                    B.2.4      Trends in Systems
                               Control Philosophy     B-7

                    B.2.S      Conclusions            B-9

              B.3   Family Properties                 B-9

              B.4   Fundamental System Design
                    Consideration for MILDATA
                    Modules                           B-ll


                                  i
           B.4.1   Reliability
                   Considerations           B-ll

           B.4.2   Reliability Require-
                   ments                    B-12

           B.4.3   The Decentralized
                   Control Concept          B-12

           B.4.4   Implications             B-17

C.   SOFTWARE                               C-l

     C.l   Introduction                     C-l

     C.2   Characteristics of Command
           and Control Software             C-l

     C.3   Development and Maintenance      C-4

     C.4   Terminology                      C-10

     C.s   Programming Support              C-12

     C.6   Adaptive Programming             C-13

     C.7   Management Problems    and
           Cost Factors                     C-14

D.   ARMY COMMUNICATIONS                    D-l

     D.l   Background and Implications
           of Changing Army Tactical
           Doctrine                         D-l

     D.2   Communications Techniques        D-3

           D.2.l   Introduction             D-3

           D.2.2   Random Access Discrete
                   Address System (RADA)    D-4

           D.2.3   Pulse Code Modulation
                   (PCM)                    D-4


                      ii
           D.2.4   Single Sideband and
                   Frequency Modulation       D-S

           D.2.6   Security Considerations    D-6

           D.2.7   Error Control
                   Considerations             D-7

     D.3   Conclusions                        D-8

E.   HARDWARE                                 E-l

     E.l   Introduction                       E-l

           E.l.l   General                    E-l

           E.l.2   Summary of Discussion      E-3

     E.2   Circuitry and Packaging            E-3

           E.2.l   ~storic   Background       E-3

           E.2.2   Discrete Component
                   Technology                 E-4

                   E.2.2.l   Semi-conductor
                             Technology       E-4

                   E.2.2.2   Cryogenics       E-6

                   E.2.2.3   Magnetics        E-7

                   E.2.2.4   Summary of
                             Discrete
                             Circuit
                             Investigations   E-7

           E.2.3   Integrated Electronic
                   Circuitry                  E-8

                   E.2.3.l   Definitions      E-8

                   E.2.3.2   Circuit
                             Selection
                             Considerations   E-IO


                     iii
              E.2.3.3   Summary and
                        Conclusions      E-ll

E.3   Internal Processor Storage and
      Memory Systems                     E-l2

      E.3.l   Introduction               E-l2

      E.3.2   Status of Current
              Memory Developments        E-l3

              E.3.2.l   Active
                        Register
                        Storage          E-l3

              E.3.2.2   Magnetic Thin
                        Film Memories    E-l4

              E.3.2.3   Advanced Ferrite
                        Memories         E-l6

              E.3.2.4   Cryogenic
                        Memories         E-20

      E.3.3   Current Memory Design
              Trends                     E-24

              E.3.3.l   Introduction     E-24

              E.3.3.2   Read-Only
                        Memories         E-25

              E.3.3.3   Associative
                        Memories         E-26

E.4   Man Machine Input/Output Devices   E-32

      E.4.l   Introduction               E-32

      E.4.2   Standard Input/Output
              Devices-Current Status     E-33

              E.4.2.l   Keyboards        E-33

              E.4.2.2   Paper Tape
                        Equipment        E-34
                iv
        E.4 .. 2.3    Punched Card
                      Equipment         E-34

        E.4.2.4       Character-at-a-
                      time Printers     E-35

        E.4.2.5       High-Speed
                      Impact Printers   E-35

        E.4 .. 2.6    Non-Impact
                      Printers          E-35

E.4.3   Advanced Input/Output
        Devices                         E-36

        E.4.3.l       Character
                      Readers           E-36

        E.4.3.2       Voice
                      Recognition
                      Devices           E-37

        E.4.3 .. 3    Direct Dis-
                      play Devices      E-38

        E.4.3.4       Light Pens        E-39

        E.4.3.5       Audio Output      E-39

E.4.4   Usage Considerations            E-40

        E.4_4.l       Environmental
                      and Physical
                      Factors           E-40
        E.4.4.2       System Response
                      Time              E-4l

        E.4.4.3       Programming
                      Considerations    E-4l

        .E. 4. 4. 4   Formating
                      Requirements      E-4l

        E.4.4.5       Training
                      Requirements      E-43


               v
          E.4.S    Summary                     E-44

    E.S   Bulk - Peripheral Storage
          Systems                              E-44

          E.S.l    Introduction                E-44

          E.S.2    Discussion                  E-4S

          ~.S.3    Summary                     E-47

    E.6   References                          E-48

ATTACHMENT E-1     MECHANISM FOR COMPUTER
                   CHARACTERISTIC EXTRA-
                   POLATIONS                  E-I-l

                   1.   General               E-I-l

                   2.   Program Description   E-I-l

                        2.1   Data Transfor-
                              mation - EDITIN,
                              EDITIP, EDITIQ E-I-3

                        2.2   Plot Selection -
                              FINGER           E-I-3

                        2.3   Curve Fitting -
                              FITTER          E-I-6

                        2.4   Printout - HDCOPY
                                              E-I-6

ATTACHMENT E-1I    ANALYSIS OF EXTRAPOLATED
                   RESULTS                  E-II-l

                   1.   Projected State-
                        of-the Art            E-II-l

                   2.   Physical Limita-
                        tions                 E-II-3

                   3.   Summary               E-II-4

ATTACHMENT E-1II   EXTRAPOLATION RESULTS      E-III-l


                         vi
ATTACHMENT E-IV   AN ASSOCIATIVE
                  PROCESSOR FOR THE
                  ROUTING PROBLEM          E-IV-l

                  1.   Introduction        E-IV-l

                  2.   The Routing
                       Algorithm           E-IV-l

                  3.   The Associative
                       Processor           E-IV-3

                  4.   The Computational
                       Procedure           E-IV-5

                  5.   Conclusions         E-IV-6

ATTACHMENT E-V    AN ASSOCIATIVE PRO-
                  CESSOR FOR CORRELATION
                  PROBLEMS                 E-V-l

                  1.   Introduction        E-V-l

                  2.   The Problem         E-V-l

                  3.   Description of
                       the Processor       E-V-2

                  4.   Procedure           E-V-3

                  5.   Conclusions         E-V-8




                       vii
                         VOLUME   II

                      LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE   A-I       Systems Expandability Pattern     A-8
  II
         A-2       Minimum Associative System
                   Organization                      A-9

  II
         B-1       IBM-7950 Harvest System           B-3
  II
         B-2       Byte Train Processor              B-5

  II
         C-l       Flow Chart                        C-8

  II
         E-l       MILDATA Time Schedule             E-2

  "      E-2       Large Random-Access Memories:
                   Cycle Time versus Capacity        E-2l

  II
         E-3       Large Random - Access Memories:
                   Packing Density versus Capacity   E-22

  "      E-4       Large Random - Access Memories:
                   Cost versus Capacity              E-23

  "      E-I-l     MILDATA Computer Characteristic
                   Extrapolation System              E-I-2

  "      E-I-2     Flow Chart FINGER Program         E-I-4

  "      E-I-3     Flow Chart FITTER Program         E-I-7

  "      E-II-l    Postulated Simple Von Neuman
                   Machine - 1971                    E-II-5

  "      E-III-l   Memory Access Time   vs.
                   Installation Date                 E-III-3

  "      E-III-2   Memory Cycle Time vs.
                   Installation Date                 E-III-4
  II
         E-III-3   Transfer Rate vs. Installation
                   Date                              E-III-5



                          viii
Figure   E-III-4   Maximum Memory Capacity
                   vs. Installation Date           E-III-6

  "      E-III-5   Maximum Capacity/Cycle time
                   vs. Installation Date           E-III-7

  II
         E-III-6   Add Time vs. Installation
                   Date                            E-III-8
  II
         E-III-7   Multiply Time vs.Installation
                   Date                            E-III-9
  II
         E-III-8   Power vs. Installation Date     E-IlI-lO

  "      E-IV-l    Associative Memory with
                   Arithmetic Capability           E-IV-3
  II
         E-V-l     Associative Processor for the
                   Correlation Problem             E-V-9




                             ix
                     VOLUME II

                   LIST OF TABLES

TABLE   A-I      Personnel and Administration
                 Sub-System                      A-7

  "     A-2      Logistics Sub-System            A-12

  II
        A-3      Fire Support Sub-System         A-17

  "     A-4      Intelligence Sub-System         A-21

  II
        E-l      Current Thin Magnetic Film
                 Memory Developments             E-IS
  II
        E-2      Prognostications Concerning
                 Future Thin Magnetic Film
                 Memories                        E-17
  II
        E-3      Processor Main Memories         E-18

  "     E-4      Bulk Ferrite Memory Efforts     E-19

  II
        E-S      Associative Memory Studies
                 Utilizing Magnetic Techniques   E-28

  II
        E-II-l   Raw Projected Computer
                 Characteristics - 1971          E-II-2




                          x
APPENDIX A
                            APPENDIX A

                           Applications



A.l. Introduction

     The major delineations found in the applications area of
MILDATA are dictated by Army doctrine and experience o  The areas
where some computer processing already exists are Logistics,
Intelligence, Fire Control, and a grouping called Personnel
and Administrationo Superimposed upon these areas are Command
and Control requirements which in some instances use these
facilities and in some instances impose a totally new set of
requirements on the loose system made up of the equipment
applied to the foregoing areas.

     The MILDATA system of the 1975-1985 era will very likely
be an extension of this very general structure, but utilizing
faster and radically more powerful equipment, communication
facilities/which are at the same time internal links in the
system, and external links to the user, and operating in an
environment that is at once global and local.

     It is not inconceivable that the array of weaponry avail-
able to the combatants in this time era will be so formidable
that actual use of all of them in combat would be unlikely and
the utilization of military force for political gain will have
ceased to be profitable in the cold war.

     In such an environment the skill of analysis combined with
the quickness of response will be the most effective weapon and
the side which can demonstrate that i t can use its weaponry and
survive will win.

     Attendant on such a theory, admittedly over-simplified, is
the mounting need for centralization of information from an ever
growing and expanding system of information gathering sensors.
The function of information reduction and display will be central
to the system deSign, and the system which can enrich the picture
thus generated will be valuable to the ~ who must evaluate all
the information and select a course of action.


                              A-l
     Within this frame of reference the description of the
application for future systems must be considered o

     The computer system of the future (1975-1985) will likely
lose its identity as a computer entity and emerge as an integral
part of a larger system which is designed as a fast-reacting
military shield with two purposes; to coerce the enemy from
using his weaponry and to protect the United states and its
allies from the effect of this weaponry if it is employed.
Intrinsic to this system will be a wide and varying network of
surveillance communications and countermeasures devices. A new
aspect of this type of warfare will be the need to keep the enemy
briefed on our capability in order to prevent a disastrous under-
estimate of our capability and our resolution to use it. Regular
demonstrations of this strength on a global scale is one way to
accomplish this, another way is to build a military system that
is as quickly effective on a limited warfare basis as on an ex-
tended warfare basiso The enormous amounts of information
available for analysis by a commander must be capable of
utilization both in actual warfare and in the para military -
political - economic half world in which the military operates
today and will for the forseeable future.

     The basic skills required to utilize the integrated system
must be delineated and analyzed so that they may be taught to
the various echelons of responsible rank within the Army organiza-
tion. The system must be so designed that it supplements the basic
skills found in each rank within the Army and at the same time
enhances the fighting effectiveness of each occupant of these
ranks. Only if these considerations are foremost throughout
the design of the 'system can the system be properly integrated
into the Army structure without causing a major disturbance of
both structures. A quick integration of the system into the
Army is desirable to prevent the debillitating effect of pro-
tracted phasing in and out of equipment in the traditional mannero




                               A-2
A.2.   Personnel and Administration

      Under the category of work included in the Personnel and
Administration Subsystem is found the Personnel Management and
Control function, Financial, Medical, Discipline, and Special
reporting (see Table A-l {Personnel and Administration



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