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                                                                                                            BE-91
                                      BODY ELECTRICAL     -   AUDIO SYSTEM


                                                AUDIO SYSTEM                                                  BE1FG-01


                                                DESCRIPTION
                                         1.    RADIO WAVE BAND
The radio wave bands used in radio broadcasting are as follows:

 Frequency                   30 kHz             300 kHz            3 MHz             30 MHz             300 MHz

 Designation                            LF                    MF               HF                 VHF

                                                      AM                                     FM
 Radio wave

 Modulation                                        Amplitude modulation                     Frequency modulation

LF: Low Frequency
MF: Medium Frequency
HF: High Frequency
VHF: Very High Frequency




                                                2.    SERVICE AREA
                                                There are great differences in the size of the service area for AM
                                                and FM monaural. Sometimes FM stereo broadcasts cannot be
                                                received even through AM can be received in very clearly.
                                                Not only does FM stereo have the smallest service area, but it
          FM (Stereo)                           also picks up static and other types of interference ("noise")
             FM (Monaural)                      easily.
                        AM

                                       BE2818



                                                3.    RECEPTION PROBLEMS
                                                Besides the problem of static, there are also the problems
                                                called "fading", "multipath" and "fade out". These problems are
                                                caused not by electrical noise but by the nature of the radio
                                                waves themselves.




 Fading                                               (1)     Fading
                   lonosphere
                                                              Besides electrical interference, AM broadcasts are
                                                              also susceptible to other types of interference, es-
                                                              pecially at night. This is because AM radio waves
                                                              bounce off the ionosphere at night. These radio
                                                              waves then interfere with the signals from the same
                                                              transmitter that reach the vehicle's antenna directly.
                                                              This type of interference is called "fading".
                                       BE2819



2002 ECHO (RM884U)

                                                                    Author :             Date :               1295
BE-92
                                BODY ELECTRICAL        -   AUDIO SYSTEM

                                                 (2)       Multipath
           Multipath
                                                           One type of interference caused by the bounce of
                                                           radio waves off of obstructions is called "multipath".
                                                           Multipath occurs when a signal from the broadcast
                                                           transmitter antenna bounces off buildings and
                                                           mountains and interferes with the signal that is re-
                                                           ceived directly.

                                  BE2820



                                                 (3)    Fade Out
         Fade Out                                       Because FM radio waves are of higher frequencies
                                                        than AM radio waves, they bounce off buildings,
                                                        mountains, and other obstructions. For this reason,
                                                        FM signals often seem to gradually disappear or
                                                        fade away as the vehicle goes behind a building or
                                                        other obstruction. This is called "fade out".
                                           4.     COMPACT DISC PLAYER
                                  BE2821   Compact Disc Players use a laser beam pick-up to read the dig-
                                           ital signals recorded on the CD and reproduce analog signals
                                           of the music, etc.
                                           HINT:
                                           Never attempt to disassemble or oil any part of the player unit.
                                           Do not insert any object other than a disc into the magazine.
                                           NOTICE:
                                           CD players use an invisible laser beam which could cause
                                           hazardous radiation exposure. Be sure to operate the play-
                                           er correctly as instructed.


                                           5.    Tape Player/Head Cleaning:
 Example:
                                                 MAINTENANCE
                       Head   Capstan
                                           (a)   Raise the cassette door with your finger.
                                                 Next, using a pencil or similar object, push in the guide.
                                           (b)   Using a cleaning pen or cotton applicator soaked in clean-
                                                 er, clean the head surface, pinch rollers and capstans.


        Pinch Roller              N17398



                                           6.     CD Player/Disc Cleaning:
                                                  MAINTENANCE
                                           If the disc gets dirty, clean the disc by wiping the surface from
                                           the center to outside in the radial directions with a soft cloth.
                                           NOTICE:
                                           Do not use a conventional record cleaner or anti-static pre-
                                           servative.

                                  BE4331



2002 ECHO (RM884U)

                                                                  Author :             Date :               1296
                                                                                                        BE-93
                                     BODY ELECTRICAL   -   AUDIO SYSTEM

7.      OUTLINE OF AVC-LAN
(a)     What is AVC-LAN?
        AVC-LAN is the abbreviation, which stands for Audio Visual Communication-Local Area Network.
        This is a unified standard co-developed by 6 audio manufactures associated with Toyota Motor Corpo-
        ration.
        The Unified standard covers signals, such as audio signal, visual signal, signal for switch indication
        and communication signal.
(b)     Objectives
        Recently the car audio system has been rapidly developed and functions have been changed drasti-
        cally. The conventional system has been switched to the multi-media type such as a navigation sys-
        tem. At the same time the level of customers needs to audio system has been upgraded. This lies be-
        hind this standardization.
        The concrete objectives are explained below.
        (1) When products by different manufactures were combined together, there used to be a case that
               malfunction occurred such as sound did not come out. This problem has been resolved by stan-
               dardization of signals.
        (2) Various types of after market products have been able to add or replace freely.
        (3) Because of the above (2), each manufacture has become able to concentrate on developing
               products in their strongest field. This has enabled many types of products provided inexpensive-
               ly.
        (4) Conventionally, a new product developed by a manufacture could not be used due to a lack of
               compatibility with other manufactures products. Because of this new standard, users can enjoy
               compatible products provided for them timely.
(c)     The above descriptions are the objectives to introduce AVC-LAN. By this standardization, develop-
        ment of new products will no longer cause systematic errors. Thus, this is very effective standard for
        a product in the future.
HINT:
S       When +B short or GND short is detected in AVC-LAN circuit, communication stops. Accordingly the
        audio system does not function normally.
S       When audio system is not equipped with a navigation system, audio head unit is the master unit. (When
        audio system is equipped with a navigation system, navigation ECU is the master unit.)
S       The car audio system using AVC-LAN circuit has a diagnosis function.
S       Each product has its own specified numbers called physical address. Numbers are also allotted to
        each function in one product, which are called logical address.




 2002 ECHO (RM884U)

                                                                Author :             Date :              1297



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