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                      INTRODUCTION     -   HOW TO TROUBLESHOOT ECU CONTROLLED             IN-29
                                           SYSTEMS
                                                                                           IN05X-20


                              HOW TO USE THE DIAGNOSTIC
                              CHART AND INSPECTION
                              PROCEDURE
                              1.     CONNECTOR CONNECTION AND TERMINAL IN-
                                     SPECTION
                               S     For troubleshooting, diagnostic trouble code charts or
                                     problem symptom table are provided for each circuit with
                     FI0046          detailed inspection procedures on the following pages.
                               S     When all the component parts, wire harnesses and con-
                                     nectors of each circuit except the ECU are found to be
                                     normal in troubleshooting, then it is determined that the
                                     problem is in the ECU. Accordingly, if diagnosis is per-
                                     formed without the problem symptoms occurring, refer to
                                     Step 8 to replace the ECU. So always confirm that the
                                     problem symptoms are occurring, or proceed with inspec-
                                     tion while using the symptom simulation method.
                               S     The instructions "Check wire harness and connector" and
                     FI0047          "Check and replace ECU" which appear in the inspection
                                     procedure, are common and applicable to all diagnostic
                                     trouble codes. Follow the procedure outlined below
                                     whenever these instructions appear.
                              OPEN CIRCUIT:
                              This could be due to a disconnected wire harness, faulty con-
                              tact in the connector, and a connector terminal pulled out, etc.
                              HINT:
                               S     It is rarely the case that a wire is broken in the middle of
                                     it. Most cases occur at the connector. In particular, care-
                     FI0048          fully check the connectors of sensors and actuators
                               S     Faulty contact could be due to rusting of the connector
                                     terminals, to foreign materials entering terminals or a de-
                                     formation of connector terminals. Simply disconnecting
                                     and reconnecting the connectors once changes the
                                     condition of the connection and may result in a return to
                                     normal operation. Therefore, in troubleshooting, if no ab-
                                     normality is found in the wire harness and connector
                                     check, but the problem disappears after the check, then
                                     the cause is considered to be in the wire harness or con-
                                     nectors.
                              SHORT CIRCUIT:
                              This could be due to a contact between wire harness and the
                              body ground or to a short circuit occurred inside the switch, etc.
                              HINT:
                              When there is a short circuit between the wire harness and body
                              ground, check thoroughly whether the wire harness is caught
                              in the body or is clamped properly.




2002 ECHO (RM884U)

                                                Author :              Date :                29
IN-30                                  INTRODUCTION    -   HOW TO TROUBLESHOOT ECU CONTROLLED
                                                           SYSTEMS

                                               2.    CONNECTOR HANDLING
                                               When inserting tester probes into a connector, insert them from
                                               the rear of the connector. When necessary, use mini test leads.
                                               For water resistant connectors which cannot be accessed from
                                               behind, take good care not to deform the connector terminals.




                                      FI7187




 Sensor Side                                   3.    CONTINUITY CHECK (OPEN CIRCUIT CHECK)
                           ECU Side            (a)   Disconnect the connectors at both ECU and sensor
                                                     sides.




                                      IN0379



               ECU Side                        (b)   Measure the resistance between the applicable terminals
                                                     of the connectors.
                                                     Resistance: 1  or less
 Sensor Side
                                               HINT:
                                               Measure the resistance while lightly shaking the wire harness
                                               vertically and horizontally.



                                      IN0378




                ECU Side                       4.    RESISTANCE CHECK (SHORT CIRCUIT CHECK)
                                               (a)   Disconnect the connectors on both ends.
                                               (b)   Measure the resistance between the applicable terminals
  Sensor Side                                        of the connectors and body ground. Be sure to carry out
                                                     this check on the connectors on both ends.
                                                     Resistance: 1 M or higher
                                               HINT:
                                               Measure the resistance while lightly shaking the wire harness
                                      IN0380   vertically and horizontally.

                                               5.    VISUAL CHECK AND CONTACT PRESSURE CHECK
                                               (a)   Disconnect the connectors at both ends.
                                               (b)   Check for rust or foreign material, etc. in the terminals of
                                                     the connectors.
                             Pull Lightly      (c)   Check crimped portions for looseness or damage and
                                                     check that the terminals are secured in lock portion.
                   Looseness of Crimping
                                               HINT:
                                               The terminals should not come out when pulled lightly from the
                                      IN0381   back.

2002 ECHO (RM884U)

                                                                  Author :             Date :               30
                                               INTRODUCTION     -   HOW TO TROUBLESHOOT ECU CONTROLLED             IN-31
                                                                    SYSTEMS

                                                       (d)   Prepare a test male terminal and insert it in the female ter-
                                                             minal, then pull it out.
                                                       NOTICE:
                                                       When testing a gold-plated female terminal, always use a
                                                       gold-plated male terminal.
                                                       HINT:
                                                       When the test terminal is pulled out more easily than others,
                                                       there may be poor contact in that section.



Fig. 1                                                 6.    CHECK OPEN CIRCUIT
                                             ECU       For the open circuit in the wire harness in Fig. 1, perform "(a)
         C      OPEN        B           A              Continuity Check" or "(b) Voltage Check" to locate the section.
Sensor
              1     1       1           1
              2     2       2           2




                                              Z17004



Fig. 2                                                 (a)   Check the continuity.
                                                             (1) Disconnect connectors "A" and "C" and measure
                                                                 the resistance between them.
                                             ECU
                                                                 In the case of Fig. 2:
               C                   A
Sensor                  B                                        Between terminal 1 of connector "A" and terminal 1
                 1          1     1
               2            2       2                            of connector "C"  No continuity (open)
                                                                 Between terminal 2 of connector "A" and terminal 2
                                                                 of connector "C"  Continuity
                                              Z17005             Therefore, it is found out that there is an open circuit
                                                                 between terminal 1 of connector "A" and terminal 1
Fig. 3                                                           of connector "C".
                                                             (2) Disconnect connector "B" and measure the resis-
                                             ECU                 tance between the connectors.
                                                                 In the case of Fig. 3:
Sensor
                                                                 Between terminal 1 of connector "A" and terminal 1
          C    B2                B1      A                       of connector "B1"  Continuity
          1     1                1      1                        Between terminal 1 of connector "B2" and terminal
         2       2              2        2                       1 of connector "C"  No continuity (open)
                                              B04722             Therefore, it is found out that there is an open circuit
                                                                 between terminal 1 of connector "B2" and terminal
                                                                 1 of connector "C".




2002 ECHO (RM884U)

                                                                         Author :              Date :               31
IN-32                                     INTRODUCTION     -   HOW TO TROUBLESHOOT ECU CONTROLLED
                                                               SYSTEMS

 Fig. 4                                           (b)    Check the voltage.
                                                         In a circuit in which voltage is applied (to the ECU connec-
                                                         tor terminal), an open circuit can be checked for by con-
             0V             5V                           ducting a voltage check.
    Sensor                   A
             C    5V B              5V                          As shown in Fig. 4, with each connector still con-
                1        1 1                                    nected, measure the voltage between body ground
              2        2     2
                                                                and terminal 1 of connector "A" at the ECU 5V out-
                                                                put terminal, terminal 1 of connector "B", and termi-
                                         Z17007                 nal 1 of connector "C", in that order.
                                                  If the results are:
                                                  5V: Between Terminal 1 of connector "A" and Body Ground
                                                  5V: Between Terminal 1 of connector "B" and Body Ground
                                                  0V: Between Terminal 1 of connector "C" and Body Ground
                                                  Then it is found out that there is an open circuit in the wire har-
                                                  ness between terminal 1 of "B" and terminal 1 of "C".




 Fig. 5                                           7.     CHECK SHORT CIRCUIT
                                                  If the wire harness is ground shorted as in Fig. 5, locate the sec-
            C SHORT B           A                 tion by conducting a "continuity check with ground".
             1     1            1
             2      2           2




                                         Z17008



Fig. 6                                            Check the continuity with ground.
                                                      (1) Disconnect connectors "A" and "C" and measure
                                                            the resistance between terminal 1 and 2 of connec-
                                    ECU                     tor "A" and body ground.
               C      B    A                                In the case of Fig. 6:
   Sensor
              1       1    1                                Between terminal 1 of connector "A" and body
              2        2    2
                                                            ground  Continuity (short)
                                                            Between terminal 2 of connector "A" and body
                                         Z17009             ground  No continuity
                                                            Therefore, it is found out that there is a short circuit
                                                            between terminal 1 of connector "A" and terminal 1
                                                            of connector "C".




2002 ECHO (RM884U)

                                                                     Author :              Date :               32
                                        INTRODUCTION     -   HOW TO TROUBLESHOOT ECU CONTROLLED                  IN-33
                                                             SYSTEMS


Fig. 7                                                (2)   Disconnect connector "B" and measure the resis-
                                                            tance between terminal 1 of connector "A" and body
                                                            ground, and terminal 1 of connector "B2" and body
                                                            ground.
                                      ECU
            C     B2        B1    A                         Between terminal 1 of connector "A" and body
 Sensor
            1      1        1    1                          ground  No continuity
            2       2       2    2                          Between terminal 1 of connector "B2" and body
                                                            ground  Continuity (short)
                                      Z17808                Therefore, it is found out that there is a short circuit
                                                            between terminal 1 of connector "B2" and terminal
                                                            1 of connector "C".
                                                8.     CHECK AND REPLACE ECU
                                                First check the ECU ground circuit. If it is faulty, repair it. If it is
                                                normal, the ECU could be faulty, so replace the ECU with a nor-
                                                mal functioning one and check that the symptoms appear.




                                                      (1)  Measure the resistance between the ECU ground
Example
                                                           terminal and the body ground.
                                                      Resistance: 1  or less
         Ground




                                       IN0383



                                                      (2)    Disconnect the ECU connector, check the ground
ECU Side
                                                             terminals on the ECU side and the wire harness
                                                             side for bend and check the contact pressure.
                   Ground
W/H Side


Ground
                                       IN0384




2002 ECHO (RM884U)

                                                                    Author :               Date :                 33



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