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                                       INTRODUCTION   -    HOW TO TROUBLESHOOT ECU CONTROLLED           IN-19

Carry out troubleshooting in accordance with the procedure on the following page. Here, only the basic pro-
cedure is shown. Details are provided in Diagnostics section, showing the most effective methods for each
circuit. Confirm the troubleshooting procedures first for the relevant circuit before beginning troubleshooting
of that circuit.

       Vehicle Brought to Workshop

  1       Customer Problem                                Ask the customer about the conditions and the
          Analysis                                        environment when the problem occurred.

   2     Symptom Confirmation                3
         and Diagnostic Trouble              Symptom Simulation
         Code Check
                                                          2, 3
                                                          Confirm the symptoms and the problem conditions,
                                                          and check the diagnostic trouble codes.
                                                          (When the problem symptoms do not appear
                                                          during confirmation, use the symptom simulation
                                                          method described later on.)
   4     Diagnostic Trouble
         Code Chart

                               Problem Symptoms Table

                                                          4, 5, 6
                                                          Check the results obtained in Step 2, then confirm
                                                          the inspection procedure for the system or the part
                                                          which should be checked using the diagnostic
  6                                                       trouble code chart or the problem symptoms table.
         Circuit Inspection or Parts

   7     Repair                                           Check and repair the affected system or part in
                                                          accordance with the instructions in Step 6.

   8     Confirmation Test
                                                          After completing repairs, confirm that the problem
                                                          has been eliminated.
                                                          (If the problem is not reproduced, perform the
                                                          confirmation test under the same conditions and
                                                          in the same environment as when it occurred for
                                                          the first time.)

 2002 ECHO (RM884U)

                                                                 Author :            Date :               19
IN-20                                                          INTRODUCTION        -   HOW TO TROUBLESHOOT ECU CONTROLLED

In troubleshooting, the problem symptoms must be confirmed accurately and all preconceptions must be
cleared away in order to give an accurate judgment. To ascertain just what the problem symptoms are, it is
extremely important to ask the customer about the problem and the conditions at the time it occurred.Impor-
tant Point in the Problem Analysis:
The following 5 items are important points in the problem analysis. Past problems which are thought to be
unrelated and the repair history, etc. may also help in some cases, so as much information as possible should
be gathered and its relationship with the problem symptoms should be correctly ascertained for reference
in troubleshooting. A customer problem analysis table is provided in Diagnostics section for each system
for your use.
                            Important Points in the Customer Problem Analysis
                      D   What ----- Vehicle model, system name
                      D   When ----- Date, time, occurrence frequency
                      D   Where ----- Road conditions
                      D   Under what conditions? ----- Running conditions, driving conditions, weather conditions
                      D   How did it happen? ----- Problem symptoms

   (Sample) Engine control system check sheet.

  ENGINE CONTROL SYSTEM Check Sheet                                          Name

   Customer's Name                                                                     Model and Model

   Driver's Name                                                                       Frame No.

   Data Vehicle
   Brought in                                                                          Engine Model

   License No.                                                                         Odometer Reading                                          miles

                            Engine does     Engine does not crank                 No initial combustion                 No complete combustion
                            not Start

                            Difficult to    Engine cranks slowly
                            Start           Other
   Problem Symptoms

                                            Incorrect first idle     Idling rpm is abnormal           High (            rpm)       Low (          rpm)
                            Poor Idling
                                            Rough idling         Other

                            Poor            Hesitation         Back fire               Muffler explosion (after-fire)              Surging
                            Drive ability   Knocking           Other

                                            Soon after starting           After accelerator pedal depressed
                            Engine Stall    After accelerator pedal released          During A/C operation
                                            Shifting from N to D           Other


   Data Problem

                                                  Constant          Sometimes (        times per       day/month)

 2002 ECHO (RM884U)

                                                                                                   Author :                    Date :                    20
                                           INTRODUCTION   -   HOW TO TROUBLESHOOT ECU CONTROLLED                      IN-21

The diagnostic system in the ECHO fulfills various functions. The first function is the Diagnostic Trouble Code
Check in which a malfunction in the signal circuits to the ECU is stored in code in the ECU memory at the
time of occurrence, to be output by the technician during troubleshooting. Another function is the Input Signal
Check which checks if the signals from various switches are sent to the ECU correctly.
By using these check functions, the problem areas can be narrowed down quickly and troubleshooting can
be performed effectively. Diagnostic functions are incorporated in the following systems in the ECHO.
                                                                Diagnostic Trouble   Input Signal Check    Diagnostic Test
                                                                   Code Check          (Sensor Check)     Mode (Active Test)

Engine                                                             f (with Check             f                   f
Automatic Transaxle                                                f (with Check             f
Anti-Lock Brake System                                                   f                   f                   f
Supplemental Restraint System                                            f
Theft Deterrent System                                                   f

In diagnostic trouble code check, it is very important to determine whether the problem indicated by the diag-
nostic trouble code is still occurring or occurred in the past but returned to normal at present. In addition,
it must be checked in the problem symptom check whether the malfunction indicated by the diagnostic
trouble code is directly related to the problem symptom or not. For this reason, the diagnostic trouble codes
should be checked before and after the symptom confirmation to determine the current conditions, as shown
in the table below. If this is not done, it may, depending on the case, result in unnecessary troubleshooting
for normally operating systems, thus making it more difficult to locate the problem, or in repairs not pertinent
to the problem. Therefore, always follow the procedure in correct order and perform the diagnostic trouble
code check.

   Diagnostic Trouble
                                  Confirmation    Diagnostic Trouble
   Code Check (Make a                                                                Problem Condition
                                  of Symptoms     Code Check
   note of and then clear)
   Diagnostic Trouble           Problem symptoms Same diagnostic          Problem is still occurring in the diagnostic
   Code Display                 exist            trouble code is          circuit

                                                  Normal code is          The problem is still occurring in a place
                                                  displayed               other than in the diagnostic circuit
                                                                          (The diagnostic trouble code displayed
                                                                          first is either for a past problem or it is a
                                                                          secondary problem)

                                No problem                                The problem occurred in the diagnostic
                                symptoms exist                            circuit in the past
   Normal Code Display          Problem symptoms Normal code is           The problem is still occurring in a place
                                exist            displayed                other than in the diagnostic circuit
                                No problem       Normal code is           The problem occurred in a place other
                                symptoms exist   displayed                than in the diagnostic circuit in the past

 2002 ECHO (RM884U)

                                                                    Author :                  Date :                   21
IN-22                                   INTRODUCTION    -    HOW TO TROUBLESHOOT ECU CONTROLLED

Taking into account the points on the previous page, a flow chart showing how to proceed with troubleshoot-
ing using the diagnostic trouble code check is shown below. This flow chart shows how to utilize the diagnos-
tic trouble code check effectively, then by carefully checking the results, indicates how to proceed either to
diagnostic trouble code troubleshooting or to troubleshooting of problem symptoms table.

                                          Diagnostic trouble code check

                      Making a note of and clearing of the diagnostic trouble codes displayed

                                             Symptom confirmation
                                                Problem symptoms         No problem symptoms
                                                exist                    exist

                                                            Simulation test using the symptom
                                                            simulation methods

                                          Diagnostic trouble code check

  D Diagnostic trouble code displayed      D Normal code displayed                D Normal code displayed
  D Problem symptoms exist                 D Problem symptoms exist               D No problem symptoms exist

 Troubleshooting of problem indicated        Troubleshooting of each               System Normal
 by diagnostic trouble code                  problem symptom
                                                                                If a diagnostic trouble code was
                                                                                displayed in the initial diagnostic
                                                                                trouble code check, it indicates
                                                                                that the trouble may have occurred
                                                                                in a wire harness or connector in
                                                                                that circuit in the past. Therefore,
                                                                                check the wire harness and con-
                                                                                nectors (See page IN-29 ).

 2002 ECHO (RM884U)

                                                                     Author :               Date :                 22
                                           INTRODUCTION    -    HOW TO TROUBLESHOOT ECU CONTROLLED       IN-23

The most difficult case in troubleshooting is when there are no problem symptoms occurring. In such cases,
a thorough customer problem analysis must be carried out, then simulate the same or similar conditions and
environment in which the problem occurred in the customer's vehicle. No matter how much experience a
technician has, or how skilled he may be, if he proceeds to troubleshoot without confirming the problem
symptoms he will tend to overlook something important in the repair operation and make a wrong guess
somewhere, which will only lead to a standstill. For example, for a problem which only occurs when the en-
gine is cold, or for a problem which occurs due to vibration caused by the road during driving, etc., the prob-
lem can never be determined so long as the symptoms are confirmed with the engine hot condition or the
vehicle at a standstill. Since vibration, heat or water penetration (moisture) is likely cause for problem which
is difficult to reproduce, the symptom simulation tests introduced here are effective measures in that the ex-
ternal causes are applied to the vehicle in a stopped condition.
Important Points in the Symptom Simulation Test:
In the symptom simulation test, the problem symptoms should of course be confirmed, but the problem area
or parts must also be found out. To do this, narrow down the possible problem circuits according to the symp-
toms before starting this test and connect a tester beforehand. After that, carry out the symptom simulation
test, judging whether the circuit being tested is defective or normal and also confirming the problem symp-
toms at the same time. Refer to the problem symptoms table for each system to narrow down the possible
causes of the symptom.

      1     VIBRATION METHOD: When vibration seems to be the major cause.

    Slightly shake the connector vertically and horizontally.

                                                                         Shake Slightly

    Slightly shake the wire harness vertically and horizontally.
    The connector joint, fulcrum of the vibration, and body
    through portion are the major areas to be checked thorough-

                                                                                Swing Slightly

    PARTS AND SENSOR                                                                Vibrate Slightly
    Apply slight vibration with a finger to the part of the sensor
    considered to be the problem cause and check that the mal-
    function occurs.
    Applying strong vibration to relays may result in open relays.


 2002 ECHO (RM884U)

                                                                     Author :             Date :          23
IN-24                                        INTRODUCTION     -   HOW TO TROUBLESHOOT ECU CONTROLLED

    2     HEAT METHOD: When the problem seems to occur when the suspect area is heated.

  Heat the component that is the likely cause of the malfunction
  with a hair dryer or similar object. Check to see if the malfunction
  occurs.                                                                             M a l f u n c-
  (1) Do not heat to more than 60 

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