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Description Of Frequency Determining And Stabilizing Circuit Introduction

The frequencies for transmitter and receiver local frequencies are all derived a signal 4.5 [MHz]
crystal by means of a phase locked loop. The first local oscillator frequencies are 16.27 [MHz]
(CH.1) to 16.71 [MHz] (CH.40). The second local frequency is fixed at 10.240 [MHz] to generate
second IF 455 [KHz]. During transmit, the VCO of the PLL operates 13.4825[MHZ] (CH.1) to
13.7025 [MHz] (CH.40). The VCO frequency goes to the doublers circuit Q301, L301, L302
which doublers the frequency to generate 26.965 [MHz] (CH.1) to 27.405 [MHz] (CH.40).

          Q503 Q504                            Q301          T o Transmitter
             VCO                              Doubler

                13.4825[MHz] (CH.1)                              26.965 [MHz] (CH.1)
               ~ 13.7025 [MHz] (CH.40)                           ~ 27.405 [MHz] (CH.40)

The VCO operating frequency for the receiver is 16.27 [MHz] (CH.1) to 16.71 [MHz] (CH.40) as
the first local oscillator, injected through the buffer amp Q506 into the first FET balanced mixer
Q107, Q108

  Descriptions Of Each Block
  1. Introduction
     The synthesizer is implemented with the following
          Components : PLL IC (IC6)
                          X-TAL (X401)
                          VCO, Varicap Diode (D503,504)
     IC101 is a MCU that includes LCD driver and all of control circuit.
    The PLL IC (IC6) of PLL block,
     The Q503, L404, C511, C512, C513, C507,Varicap diode D503 and D504 are clap oscillator
     circuit to operate as a VCO.
     The Q505 is a switching transistor to turn on or turn off the tuning capacitor in the VCO
     oscillator tank circuit for transmitter or receiver. The Q506 works as a buffer amp for RX
     local frequencies (16 [MHz]) and TX carrier generating frequencies (13 [MHz]).

  2. Reference Frequency
    The crystal, X401(4.5 [MHz]) and other components at pin1 and 16 of IC6 can make a
    reference frequency oscillator with internal amplifier.

    2-1. VCO
    The Q503 and surrounding parts are consisting a clap oscillator work as a VCO of IC6 with
    appropriate control voltage on D503 and D504, the can be oscillate over the required range
    of 13.4825[MHz] to 16.71 [MHz].

    2-2. Programmable Divider And PLL Data Control
    The MCU(IC101) and PLL IC (IC6) communicate by serial data for PLL IC data setting.
    The programmable inputs for each channels set by MCU (IC101). Each input signal to
    control the PLL IC is done with the provided key input pins 20 and 21 of IC101.
      2-3. Phase Detector And VCO Control
      The phase detector is a digital phase comparator which compares the phase of the reference
      signal with programmable divider output square waves and develops a series of pulses
      whose DC level depends on the phase error of each signal.
      The phase detector pulse output is fed to an active low pass filter and RC low pass filter
      output signal of IC6 is filtered and fed to varicap D503 and 504 control the VCO frequency.

      Output signal of Q503 is fed into the buffer AMP Q506, L401 to increase the strength of TX
      carrier frequency and 1st local frequencies.

        Transmitter Doublers
        The output signal of Q506, L401 goes to an amplifier with tuning circuit Q301, L301, L302
        which doubles incoming 13 MHz signals.

       Switching Of Tuning Capacitor In VCO
       The VCO circuit must tune with a wide range of frequencies 13.4825 ~ 13.7025 [MHz] for
       transmitter and 16.27 ~ 16.710 [MHz] for receiver. To comply above range of VCO, the
       tuning Capacitance should switched for transmission or reception.
       The tuning circuit consists with L401, C507, C512, C513, C522, when the VCO is working
       as a receiver Q505 becomes turn off. So, L401 AND D503,504 makes tuning function.
       When transmitting Q505 becomes on. So, L401 and the parallel capacitance of C522 and
       D503,504 make turning function.

       Receiver Local Oscillator outputs
       1ST mixer : The secondary output signals of L401 is injected to the source of 1ST mixer
                  Q107,Q108 in the 1ST IF mixer section.

        2ND mixer : The output of 10.24 [MHz] oscillator circuit with X1 is injected into the IF
                    module (IC102) . Incoming IF signal and 10.24 [MHz] signal are mixed inside
                    the IF IC to extract 2ND IF signal 455 [MHz]. FM and AM signals are recovered
                    with envelope detector.

       Frequency Stability
       Let : Fo = Crystal Oscillator Frequency
             Fr = Phase Detector Reference Frequency
             Fvco = VCO Frequency
             Ft = T ransmit Frequency
             Then : Fr = Fo/1800
             And under locked conditions : Fr = Fvco / N
             Where , "N" is the programmable divider ratio.
       Then : Fvco = N X Fr

       From which it can be seen, the percentage error in Ft is the same as percentage error in
       The stability of the crystal oscillator is determined primarily by the itself and having passive
       components of the oscillator.
       The choice of crystal and components is such that the required frequency stability is
        maintained over the required voltage and temperature range.
Description Of Transmitter And Receiver
 1. The Transmitter

 RF Amplification
 The output of doublers AMP Q301 is fed through tuning IFT L301 and L302 to the base of
 pre-driver AMP Q305.
 The output is then supplied through tuning circuit L303 to RF driver AMP Q306.
 The output of Q306 is supplied with tuning circuit L304, C321, RFC306 and goes to the base of
 final RF AMP Q307. The output of Q307 is supplied to the antenna through L-C tuning circuit.

 The tuning circuit between the output of final AMP Q303 and antenna, 7-stage "LPF"
 network L310, C331, C332, L311, C333, C335, L312, C337,
 serves as a spurious radiation suppressor. This network also serves to match the
 impedance between TX power AMP Q307 and the antenna.

 Circuits For Limiting Power
 After finished all alignment, to constant voltage supply circuit limits the available power 4 [W] or
 slightly less. RV-203 and corresponding three transistors control supply voltage of RF amplifier
 and other circuits.
 Tune all the trimming parts for maximum indication of RF power meter and adjust RV-203 to
 make 4 [W] indication of RF power meter. The tuning is adjusted so that the actual power is
 from 3.8 to 4.0 [W]. There are on other additional controls for adjusting the TX output power.

 Max Deviation Control
 The deviation signals are filtered with RC network and goes to the OP AMP IC IC3 make
 nominal signal level to achieve wanted modulation. To control incoming audio signal, diode
 D451,452 and corresponding limiter circuit controls with proportional to sampled audio output
 level adjust RV501 shall not exceed 

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