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YX-360TR


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                              Y)(-
                              MULTITESTER

sanuJa
  SANWAELECTRIC
INSTRUMENT LTD.
         CO.,
DempaBldg.,Sotokanda2-Chome
  Chiyoda-Ku,
            Tokyo,
                 Japan        OPERATOR'S
                                       MANUAL
                    H 1tr 6f;ts8{fi
                                                                  for safety operation and maintenance

                                                                  To be sure, a circuit tester is a very useful device capable of
                                                                  measuring voltage, current, resistance, and various other
                                                                  electric and electronic quantities. Accordingly, the object
                                                                  of me'asurement coversvaries widely from minute current
                                                                                              it
                                                                  to high voltage. Furthermore, the input impedance changes
                                                                  from a few ohms up to high megohm level with the
                                                                  measurement range cut over. These properties of a circuit
                                                                  t e s t e r d e m a n d t h e o p e r a t o r t o u s e u t m o s t ca r e i n , th e
                                                                  operation and maintenance of his instrument to ward him-
                                                                  self off danger and damage to the meter. Especially when
                                                                  checking high power equipment, no operation mistake
                                                                  should be committed. Remember a circuit tester needs
                                                                  periodical inspection and calibration to maintain it in good
                                                                  condition. A tester known to be defective, or laid away
                                                                  unused for many months must not be used to measure a
                                                                  voltage above 100V. Be certain for a tester to undergo
                                     Fig. I
                                                                  warrantable inspection at least once a year, when correct
                                                                  indication of the range must be ascertainedand withstand
                                                                  v o l t a q et e s t n o t b e o m i t t e d .

I Indicator zero corrector       8   Indicatorpointer
2 Rangeselectorswitch knob       9   Rearcase     bolt
3 Measuring  terminal f         l0   R e a rc a s e
4 Measuring  terminal -COM      II   Non-skidrubbers
  (common)                      l2   Rubbers     fitted
  OUTPUT (series   condenser)   l3   Connector      forhrr test
  terminal                      l4                   pin
                                     Connection to tester
6 0Q adjustingknob              I5   Transistorbaseclip
7 Nameplate                     l6   Transistorcollectorclip
                                                                                                     -1-
general description                                            contents

Viewed in the light of a circuit tester measuring voltage,     General description                                            2
current, resistance,etc., the YX-360TR is no more than a       Features                                                       4
standard multitester in function. But the added versatility    Measurement ranges and performance                             6
of performing as a transistor analyzer distinguishes it from       I As a circuit tester                                      6
averagemeters. For the particulan of its bounds of hidden          2 As a transistor tester .                                 6
possibility, you can examine for yourself the specification    Operation I - as a circuit tester                              7
data along with the benefits and advantagesthe instrument          I Zero correction of indicator                             7
offers.                                                            2 Test lead connections                                    7
For all this, the YX-360TR is by no means a large-built            3 Selectionof range                                        7
equipment, but it is a lightweight and handy-sized device to       4 Measurement ranges and scale reading . . . . . .     .   g
be seated anywhere on your bench. As a matter of fact, it is       5 Difference between voltage and current
suitable for carrying service. From beginners to profes-             mdasurements                           .......1 0
sionals, you can enjoy a good command of it so as to get           6 Voltage measurementand internal impedance .          . 1l
the best of the instrument on your original idea according         7 Use of HV probe for TV servicing                       Lz
to your own service desigt,                                        8 ACV measurement on OUTPUT terminal . . . .           . 13
                                                                   9 Resistancemeasurement and 0S-ladjustment . .         . 13
                                                                 I 0 dB scale                                               15
                                                               Operation II - as a transistor tester .                      17
                                                                   I Preliminaries ..                                       t7
                                                                   2 Measurementof Icro (leakagecurrent) . . . . . .      . 17
                                                                   3 Measurementof hre (DC amplification factor)            18
                                                                   4 Measurementof diode including LED . .                  20
                                                               Maintenance                                                  2l
                                                                   I Choosing a proper range.                               2l
                                                                   2 Measurementof unknown values                           21
                                                                   3 Protection of tester                                   2l
                                                                   4 Burnout damage through misapplication          . .     21
                                                               Supplementary data                                           23
                                                                   I Arrangement of parts                                   24
                                                                   2 Partslist...                                           25

                          -2 -                                                            -3-
features                                                         5 One-handedoperation control and rational arrangement
                                                                   of ranges.
                                                                   All measurementsare controlled by a single knob. Into
    All-purpose function.
                                                                   the bargain, the 1000V DC and AC rangeslie adjacent
    The YX-360TR will entertain you with expanded vision           each other on the selector switchboard to evadepossible
    of application. Optional use of the connector readily          danger caused by misplaced range selection. In most
    transfers the meter to a regular transistor tester to          testers are found these rangesadjoined at the ohm range,
    directly read hrr (DC amplification factor) of transis-        and there is a fair chance of the circuit resistorsbeing
    tors for you to determine if they are suitable for circuit     burnt out rendering the instrument out of service.[n the
    use. Few testersperform such unique double service.            worst case, it might bring on serious accident to the
                                                                   operator.
2   Ability no less better than a large-sizedtester.
    Excellent resolution factor of 0.2mV and above, and          6 Non-skid rubber support.
    widened resistance measurement range reading from              The rubbers supplied may be fitted in the pits on the
    0.2Q up to 20MQ, and that energizedby the small-size           rear to tilt the meter to a convenient viewing angle on
    internal batteries, compare the instrument favorably           the bench. They also serve to prevent the meter to skid.
    with a bulky test gear.
                                                                   Glassindicator cover.
3   Seriescondenserterminal (OUTPUTI.                              In consideration of the portable use of the instrument,
    Applied use of this extra terminal serves to check TV          scratch-, heat- and dust-proof glass is used for the
    circuits for detecting AC signals with DC element              protection of the indicator instead of a soft metacrylic-
    present mixed isolated.                                        resin cover.

4   3-volt internal battery power.
    It is impossible for a usual handy tester with a 1.S-volt
    battery built - in to check the linear continuity of
    semiconductors like LED whose forward voltage exceeds
    1.5V, being unable to read either their forward or
    backwald resistance. In this respect, the 1.s-volt bat-
    teries lined up in seriesspread the measurementrange of
    semiconductors.



                            - 4-                                                          -5-
measurement ranges and performance
                                                                                   operation | - as a circuit tester
1 As a circuittester.
                                                                                   1 Zero correction of indicator,
                      Measurement anges
                                r
                                                                                     [email protected] adjusted to place
                                                                                                                         t h e p o i n te r @o n 0
              0- 0.I V-0.
                        5v-2.5 10V-s0V-25gy
                              V-                                                     of the scale left.
              l 000v-(25kV)                                                          measurement, ;::$*':rtilJ"l:lj;*
                                                                                             b,t t;:                             :i
              25kV with HV probeextra                                                must be confirmedbeforestarting                         ::::
                                                                                                                    *earuiem.nt.
             0- l0v-50v-250V- 1000v                                   Input im-
             Frequency        .iii
                   l38fi::,8[il;                                      pedance     2 Test leadconnections.
                                                                      8kf,l/v        The test leadsattached inserted
                                                                                                              are         well down, the red
                                                                     Voltage              going to the + jack and the Ufu"t
             0 - 5 0 uA -2 .5m A- 25m A- 0. 25A                      dtop            fead                                   f."O L the _COM
                                                                     250mV
             50uA at 0.lVDC position                                 ( l0 0 m V
                                                                     for 50uA)    3 Selection range.
                                                                                               of
             S T gr        X I - x l O -x l k -x tOk                 Internal        When selecting range,the white
                                                                                                      a
             Yi4.q- 9.2- 2 -zoo-zob[iol
             Midscale 20                                             batteries                                            mark
                                                                                    correctlypositioned the prescrib.d on the knob is
                                                                                                          at
                        -2oo-2Ok-200kiiti                            UM-3 x 2                                                ;;;g;.'
             lrlaximum -20k- 2M-20M irl)
                     2k                                              0061x 1       3-I D C vol rage C V ).
                                                                                                    (D
             -l0dB-+22dB for I0VAC                                   8ko/v              DC voltagesof batteries,   amplifier circuits, power
                                                                     for OUT-           sourceof communication
             0dB/0.775VlmW throush
                      (           600a)                              PUT                                          equipment,      tuUeand tran_
                                                                                        sistorcircuit biases,.etc.-ar.
                                                                                                                    _.urur.d. Eich of the 7
                                                                     terminal
                                                                                        rangenotations(0. l-1000) indicates
2 As a transistortester.                                                               voltagereadingfor that range.              the rnaxrmum

 Leakage cur-         0- l50uA at X lk ranee                                      3-2 AC voltage   (ACV).
 rent (lc e o )                                        t5 % o f Currenta-
                      0- l5mA at X l0 ranei                                            Voltages of commercialAC supply,
     (LI )                                             iuc      crossterminals
                      0-l50mA at Xl ranle
                                                                                       circuits, AF signatlevel, erc. .r";;aiu;;;.AC powered
 DC current
                                                                                       the 4 rangenorations_(10_rooo)                   Each of
 amplification        0 -10 00 a t Xl0 r ange f )
                                            (          x3 % o f   With connec-                                             ;;;;;;;;   the maxi_
 factor (hre)                                          arc        to r e xtra         mum voltagereadingfor that range.
                                                                                  3-3 D C current C A )..
                                                                                                   (D
                                                                                      Current consumption DC power
                                                                                                             of                operatedequip_
                                  - 6-
                                                                                                            -7-
   ment, bias cunent of tube and transistor circuits, etc.      4 Measurement ranges and scale reading.
   are measured. Each of the 4 range notations                  Scale mark        Measurement                      Scale reading
   (50uA-0.25A) indicates the maximum current read-
   ing for that range. (uA= l0-3 mA and A- 103mA)                                                   Xl rangedirectly reads0.2fi-2kS-|.
                                                             (l) o (black)         Resistance       For Xl0, Xlk and XlOk ranges,
             (Q)
3-4 Resistance                                                                                      multiply readings the multiples.
                                                                                                                    by
   Resistance is measured, and line and circuit con-                                                For accuracy reading, the pointer
   tinuity (- or 0Q) tested. Each of the 4 range             (2) Mirror                             itself and its image in the mirror must
   notations indicates the multiplication of the reading                                            be l i ned up.
   for that range, where k stands for I 000.                                                   0-10, 0-50 and 0-250 lines each
                                                                                               reading     0-10V, 0-50V and0-250V
                                                                                               fs.
                                                             (3) DCV.A             DC voltage  0 .1 V , 0 . 5 V , 2 . 5 Va n d 1 0 0 0 Va r er e a d
                                                                 (black)           and current multiplied. For current, G250(A)
                                                                                               line reads 0-0.254., 0-25mA and
                                                                                               0-2.5mA. 0-50uA is readon 0-50
                                                                                               line.
                                                                                                    Common scale with DCV reads
                                                             (4) A C V (red)       AC voltage       0-250V, 0-50V and 0-l0V direct-
                                                                                                    ly. For 0-1000V, multiply the read-
                                                                                                    ine on 0- l0 line.
                                                             (s)hrr               DC amplihca- E xtra connector rea ds 0-1000                  on
                                                                      (bl ue)
                                                                                  tion factor  X lO('fi) rarge.
                                                                                                 Reads cunent flow across + and

                                                             (6) LE A K , Iceo,   Reverse leak- -CONt while measuring resistance,
                                                                                  age current    X l 0 range readi ng 0- 15mA . E mi tter
                                                                 LI (bl ue)
                                                                                  of transistors and collector connected instead read
                                                                                                 I."o.    0-l 5OuA      f or Xlk     and
                                                                                                 0-l 50mA for X 10k r ans es .

                                                             ( 7 ) LV (blue)      Voltage across Reads reverse DC voltage of 3V-0
                                                                                  terminals      while measuring resistance; X lk
                                                                                                 through X 1.
                                                                                                    - 1 0 - +2 2 d B f o r 10VACrange.OdB
                                                                                                    is established a t 0 .7 7 5 V ( l m W
                                                             (8) dB (red)         A F output        through600sl')
                                                                                                                             ACV rdg
                                                                                                              dB =20l og,o
                                                                                                                             0.7 7 V
                                                                                                                                  5

                      - 8-                                                                       -9      -
5   Difference between voltage and current measurements.
                                                                 6 Voltage measurementand internal impedance.
    Fig. 2-A is a standard voltage measurement,where the
                                                                   There are 2 instancesof voltage measurementby parallel
    potential difference between 2 points is checked, for
                                                                   connection. In case of Fig. 2-A, there exists no high
    which the meter is connected in parallel with load, while
                                                                   impedance corresponding to Re of Fig. 3. Power supply
    -B checks the current supplied by power and consumed
                                                                   source has its own internal resistance,               but it is so small as
    by load, where the meter is connected in serieswith the
                                                                   can be ignored for voltage measurement,and the loss of
    circuit. Basically, the difference is whether the meter is
                                                                   current consumption by a tester is practically nil the
    connected in parallel or in serieswith ioad. The latter
                                                                   m e t e r r e a d i n g E p . B u t , a s c a n b e n o t e d i n Fi g .3 , th e
    connection accompaniesthe trouble of cutiing open the
                                                                   circuit condition changeson account of R4 present and
    circuit being checked.
                                                                   200kQ of the tester connected in parallel for measure-
                     Itflu                       h'Zu ( Ep         ment. Consequently, the YX 3 6 !TR I'VR AN G'
                                                                   meter reads 3.77V against R ,=l 0 i V X2 0 kl =l Ski                         E.
                             It) tu
                                                                   the actual 4V resulting in                                    it
                                                                                                                    mk!
                                EP
                                                                    some error. Therefore,when
                                                                    measuring such a circuit,
                                                                    where R is usually replaced
                             Zn+o
                                                                    with a tube or a transistor,
                                                                    the circuit impedance and
                              Fig. 2                                                                                                 Fig. 3
                                                                    internal resistance of the
    In respect of measurement loss, the bigger the im-             voltage range of the tester used for. measurement
    pedance of the meter(Zu) is, the smaller is the current        must be referred to each other in reading the data
    (Iu) required for measurement for the former, and, on          o b t a i n e d . I n F i g . 3 , t h e c i r c u i t i m p e d a n ce i s a b o u t l /1 0
    the contrary, the smaller the impedance of the meter is,       of the impedance of the tester, and reading error of
    the volta ge lo ss (dr op) by I r x Zu. ( I r - c un e n t     within -5% can be ignored, though the bigger the
    consumption) Thus, high accuracy data are obtained by          internal impedance of a tester, the better.
    the YX-360TR because of its very small current loss of         The high impedanceof 20kCl/V for DCV and 8kC2/V for
    50uA for DCV and l25uA for ACV measurementsat                  DCV of this instrument displays its full ability in the
    full scale, the voltage drop for current measurement           voltage measurementof high impedancevoltage amplify-
    being 250mV.                                                   ing circuit, AVC, AGC and transistor bias circuit to
                                                                   obtain high accuracy data.




                              -1 0 -
                                                                                                       -   ll   -
                                                                        ACV measurementon OUTPUT terminal.
                                                                        The negative lead is connected as usual to the -COM
                                                                        a n d t h e p o s i t i v e l e a d t o t h e O U T P U T te r m i n a l . A
                                                                        condenser is interconnected in series with the OUTpUT
                                                                        and * terrninals to cut off DC element present on the

                                                                   rl   circuit to read AC signal alone on the meter.
                                                                        Besides checking AF output voltage, this terminal is
                                                                        available to detect signalsin TV servicing. For instance,
                                                                   il   on the AC 50V range is detected the presence of the
                                                                        horizontal signal on the horizontal amplifying circuit
                                                                        and, similarly, the presence of the input signal on the
                            Fig. 4                                      synchronous detaching and synchronous amplifying cir-
Fig. 4 above is a sample measurement of a transrstor                    cuits-
circuit. It will be useful for trouble-shooting and
discrimination of the type of the transistors used if you               Resistancemeasurementand 0O adjustment.
are acquainted in advance with the proper use of NpN                     Resistance measurement is powered by internal bat-
and PNP transistors and the fact that Ge type shows low                  teries. They wear by use resulting in reading error of the
V ne a nd Si typ e h igh Voo.                                            measured value. For correct reading of resistance,the
                                                                         sensitivity of the indicator must be adjusted according to
Use of HV probe for TV servicing.                                        the voltage supplied by batteries. This is what is called
25kV HV p rob e is av ailable ex t r a. I t is c onnec t e d a s
shown in Fig. 5 placing the range selector switch at the
                                                                   l    Gohm adjustment for the indicator
                                                                        to read 0Q at full scale. It is
                                                                                                                     l^

                                                                                                                     1
                                                                                                                         .-i9
                                                                                                                            ".'1i_
positio n ma rke d PRO BE. The DCV
0-25 0 scale is used r eading 25k V
at full scale.This probe can only be
                                                                   I    adjusted in the following way:
                                                                        As shown in Fig. 6, the range
                                                                        selector is placed at the range being
                                                                                                                                 o



used for measurement of hieh im-                                        used. With the + and -COM ter-
pedance circuit voltage like thc                                        minals shorted together, the pointer
                                       "v_-:.":",
anode and focusing voltages of a                                        moving toward 0,il is adjusted by
                                                                                                                 A ... OO ADJ
CRT for television use.                                                 turning 00ADJ to the right or left
                                              Fig. 5                                                             B ... Reading     O
                                                                        in order to place it exactly on 0 of
                                                                        the scale right. The pointer must
                                                                                                                      Fig. 6
                                                                        be adjusted each time the range is
                                                                        moved.
                         -   1Z   -
                                                                                                     -13-
Polarity of terminals for resistancemeasurement                       Replacement of batteries

 As shown in Fig. 7, the polarity of terminals is reversed            Wh e n t h e i n t e r n a l l . 5 V
 for resistance measurement, the +                                    batteries are worn out, it
jack being in negative and -COM         f-g--",),                     becomes impossible to
jack in positive potential, the bat-              oo,
                                        I                             make 0Q adjustment for
tery terminals being inverted in the i6t_"o*                          the X I range becattse it
me ter. It must be remembered
                                       i[O ., :"^                     dissipatescurrent most. So
when testing polarized resistance                                     is it for the Xl0k range
like transistorsand diodes (iunction                                  where 9V battery (006P)
type), etc. So must it be when                                        i s c o n s u m e d .T h e b a t t e r i e s
testing the leakageof electrolytic capacitors.                        needs immediate replace-
                                                                      ment. Uncover the meter
                                                                      by moving the rear bolt.                       Fig. 8
                                                                      Fig, 8 shows how to re-
Currentconsumption resistance
                 in         masurement                                place the worn-out bat-
Subject to the unit being tested, its impedance changes               terie s.
while measuring resistance on account of the current
flowing in the unit, or the voltage it is impressed with.
                                                                   10 dB scale.
Some abnormal state may be recognized due to self-
heating. It must be well noted for each ranse used                    dB (decibel) is measured in the same way as ACV
when, fo r instan ce . m eas ur ing t he DC r es is t anc eo f a      measurementreading the dB scaleinstead.
thin-wire coil an d a bulk - t y pe s em ic onduc t or l i k e a      Because the human ear is analogous to logarithmic
thermistor. The LI and LV scaies provided check                       variation, the input/output ratio of an amplifier and
current consumption and voltage load very effectively in              transistor circuit is expressedby logarithmic value dB to
t hes e mea su reme nts .                                             save complicated calculation. For a coupled circuit of a
                                                                      definite impedance, power can be compared by simply
                       M a x. cu r r e n t   N{ax. voltage
                                                                      expressing the voltage (current) ratio by dB. The dB
        Sw. position                                                  scale provided is graduated to read from OdB to +22d8
                       co n su m p tio n     across terminals
                                                                      on the reference of OdB at 0.7'75Y which is the voltage
           XI              l5 Om A                 3V
           x10               15mA                                     when I mW is dissipatedacross600C2.
                                                   3V
           xlk             150 uA                  3V                 Most frequently, the input and output circuit im-
           x l0k           ( 6 0 u A)            ( 12v )              pedances of audio amplifiers are not necessarilystand-
ardize d fo r 60 0Q, and t he dB v alues m eas ur ed
                                                          by a
t ester are no thin g but v olt age v alues r ead                    operation ll - as transistor tester
                                                        in d B
corre sp on din g to them . Howev er , when c om par in g
                                                            AF
v.oltagelevels by dB, the scale provided will
                                                    surely save      1 Preliminaries.
the trou ble of making c om plic at ed c alc ulat ion when
                                                           it is
nece ssary con ve rt t hem int o dB v alues .
           to                                                           This instrument uses its resistancerange for
                                                                                                                                                    transistor
                                                                        tests,and so the pointer must be exactly-adjusted
                                                                                                                                                        to zero
                                                                        bgfgge
                                                                                     .colnecting a transistor fo. .n"usu.e_ent, tor
                                                                        w h i c h t h e P a n d N t e r n i n a l sa r e s h o r t e d
 F or mea su reme nt on t he I 0V r ange, t he dB                                                                                      t o g e i h e r a n d th e
                                                          scale         p o r n t e r i s a d j u s t e db y O e A D J .
(-l0dB-+2 2d 8)      is r ead dir ec t ly , buq when m eas u r e d
on. t he 5 0V ra ng e, 14dB is added t o t he r eading               2 Measurementof lcEo (leakage   currentl.
                                                        on t h e
scale, a nd o n the l50V r ange, 2gdB is added. Thus ,
                                                           the        2-l A small-sizeTR (hereinafter a transistor
nraxrmu rn d B rea da ble is 22+ 19= 56( dB) m eas ur e d                                                          is referred to
                                                            on            as TR) is checked on the Xl0 e(l5mA) range,
t he l5 0V ran ge .                                                                                                        and a
                                                                          large-size
                                                                                   TR on the X I f2 range.
                                                                      2-2 An NPN TR is connected as shown in Fig.
                                                                                                                      9_A, and a
                                                                          PNP TR..B.



                                                                                  \
                                                                               .ll, ;[j, :                               AASE
                                                                                                                                     N
                                                                                                                                     \

                                                                               '"'""d5
                                                                               L>:qC                            c
                                                                                                        I




                                                                                                                    Fig. 9

                                                                       Represented electrically, Fig.
                                                                       9 may otherwise be as Fie.
                                                                       lO. where the section on thl
                                                                       right of the N and P terminals .\'"'l_-
                                                                       enclosed in the dotted line     r +i l
                                                                       corresponds to the internal t!!el
                                                                       crrcuit of the tester.              \
                                                                                                                                     Fig. l0

                                                                                                            -       lr     -
  :-J   In Fig. 10, the current flowing across the p and N                          d e t e r m i n e d b y R . F o r a g o o d T R , I c xh ,n i s l e r i to
        terminals is I..o (reverseleakage current) of the TR,                       the collector resulting in so much clrrrcnt increase
        and the quantity of the leakagecurrent is read on the                       a n d h i g h e r r e a d i n g o f t h e m e t e r . T h e q u a n ti ty o f th e
        L EAK sca lein m A.                                                         c u r r e n t c h a n g e c a n b e s c a l e do u t a s h r r o n th e m e te r
  .A
        For a Si TR, this current is too small to read.                             to read the amplification degree.
  2-5 There will be some leakage current read even for a                      J-Z   Extra connector for h|e fie?sDlemeflt.
        good quality Ge TR, though there is some difference
        sub ject to its t y pe. I t will be 0. lm A- 2m A for a                          c\
        small- and medium-size TR, and lntA-SmA for a                                      \9-=
        large-sizeone.
  2-G lf the reading falls within the red LEAK zone of the
      I."o scale, the TR tested is passabie,but if it goes
      be yo nd the zon e c om ing near t o t he f ull s c ale,t h e T R
      is definitely defective.
                                                                                                                    Fig. 12
 2-1 Leakage current is little to do with voltage value
     showing constant current characteristic, but it is a                           The connector is connected either to the N or P
     great deal subject to temperature. Be aware of                                 terminal subject to the polarity of the TR. To the
     temperature rise while testing; it reads twice as much                         other P or N terminal unemployed is connected the
     fo r +10 "C.                                                                   emitter of the TR. The range switch is set for Xl0.
                                                                              J-J   The clips of the connector are connected to the
3 Measure men to f h re ( DC am pt if ic at ion f ac t or ) 0- 1 0 0 0 .
                                                                                    c o l l e c t o r a n d b a s e , a n d t h e l e a d f r o m th e o th e r
 3-l Besides reverse leakage current, the amplification                             terminal of the tester, to the emitter.
     degree of a TR kinetically measuredalso determines
     the quality of a TR on a                                                 3-4   For a good TR, there will be a
                                                                                    big    difference of      reading
     very simple theory. As a
     TR is con ne cted t o t he                                                     between O and @ of Fig. I 3. In
     te ste r a s sho wn in Fig. 11,                                                @, when h =0 and with base Fie.                           IJ
                                                            Fig. I l                open, only a little I.ro is read,
     there flows I.r.o. A certain
     r e sistan ce (R) c onnec t ed                                                 and in ), I" flows and Ic changes
                                                                                    reading an increasedvalue by Iu
     across the N terminal and
                                                  g i Iceo+  I B a h FE =tc         x hrr.
     the base of the TR causes
     the current I^ to flow                              r., = -l!

                                - 18-                                                                            -19-
          For a fa ulty TR:    (a) No reading at all for the              i t b y t h e c o n n e c t i o n s o f F i g . 1 4 t o m ea su r eIr ;i t i s
                               c onnec t ion Q ) ;                        impossible to have light emitted. The 3-volt internal
                               (b) No difference of reading be-           battery layout of the instrument effectively checks it
                               t ween, ! and O ;                          on the Xl range. While light is being emitted, the LI
                               (c) For the Q,, reading gces be-           scale reads the current lr. and the LV scale the
                               yond the hre scale and near to             f o r w a r d v o l a g eV r .
                               full scale.
    3-5 Under the condition of Fig. [email protected] read_ing noted on
                                                   is             maintenance
        the blue hre scale. The value read is *.- which is the
        DC amplification degree of the TR test6"d.
                                                                  1 Choosinga proper range.
    3-6 Speaking exactly of a Ge TR, leakage current always
                                                                       For increasedaccuracy, use the range nearestin value to
        flows to the collector resulting in so much reading
                                                                       the value being checked. For instance, a l.5V dry cell
        error. Therefore, true value is obtained by deducting
                                                                       should be checked on the DC 2.5V range. Error will be
        from hrr the value correspondingto Icco read.
                                                                       bigger on the left half of the scale. For resistance
4     Measurementof diode including LED.                               measurement, reading is most accurate around in the
                                                                       middle of the scaie.
    4-l   The connections of Fig. l4 read I, (forward current)
          or In (reversecurrent) on the LI scale provided. For    2. Measurementof unknown values.
          the lk range, the scale reads 0-l50uA. for the Xl0
                                                                       When measuring an unknown value, start with the
          ran ge 0 -15 mA, and f or t he Xl r ange 0- l5O m A.
                                                                       highest range. After the first reading, the switch can be
    4-2 lr reads high close to full scale, and I n v er y l o w        reset to a lower range for a more accurate reading.
        practically no current flowing.
                                                                  3 Protection of tester.
    4-3 While measuringIr, the LV scale
        reads the     linear (forward)
        voltage of the diode tested. For           -3::                A tester is a precision instrument, and severeshock or
                                                                       vibration should be avoided. Do not leave it long where
        a Ge diode, it is usually                   \\                 there is high temperature or moisture.
        0. 1-0 .2V, an d f or Si diode,        ;    *i;od
          0.5-0.8v.                                               4    Burnout damagethrough misapplication.
4-4 The forward voltage of LED is                                     4-1 Misapplication occurs most burning out some internal
    generally more than 1.5V, while                ; $<.,                 resistor when high AC voltage of 100-200V is
    average testers will fail to check        Fig. l4   ' "' '            inadvertently applied to a resistanceor current range
                                                                                                      _
                              -2 0 -                                                                      LL   -
    with the selector switch placed on them unawares.
                                                                     supplementarydata
4-2 By virtue of the automatic protection circuit by Si
    diodes placed in parallel with the meter movement,
                                                                                     of
                                                                         1 Arrangement Parts
    th e pu lse cu rrent f lowing int o t he m ov em e n t i s
    absorbed by them to safeguardthe moving coil from
    ge tting bu rnt.
4-3 A resistor may be burnt out on account of a high
    volta ge o f a bo ut l00V m is applied. but it c a n b e
    replaced to restore the instrument to normal per-
    formance. Resistors most liable to burn are | 9Q                                 @, -g>@
    (R2l) for th e X l ( Q ) r ange,and lQ ( Rl2) f or 0 . 2 5 4 ,                                R1
    range. Refer to " supplementary           data " at the
    end of the manual.
4-4 For a high power circuit of more than 200V, sparking                                   [email protected]
                                                                                    [email protected]
    can cause some abnormality in the tester. Be certain
    to have the meter damaged repaired and undergo
    regular inspection and calibration by a warrantable
    test facility.

                                                                                              R t6 N R E

                                                                                              ddl




                          -2 2 -                                                         _ L J_
2 Partslist

                                                                                                  Par t N o                         D es c r i pti on                                 R.S.
 Parr           ltio                            Descrrption                               R. S.
                                                                                                  Y X R 26    R es i s tbr ( l 6k Q) , s hunt                                         R26
 YX ROI                Resistor           2kO) , mV calibr ation                          R
                                                                                                  R F OI      R ec ti f i er ( c opper - ox i de)                                     D
 YX Ri :)              R e si s to r    240Q) , ser ies                                   R
                                                                                                  c049        Capacitor                                                               c1
 YX Rr,3               Resislor         5 k0) ,    0.5V DC m ultiplier                    R3
                                                                                                  c050        Capac i tor                                                             c2
 YX R 0 4              R e si sto r     {OkO) , 2.5\' DC mulr jplier                      R
                                                                                                  v001        Var i s ter
 YX R0 5               R e si sto r    (l50kt2) , l0V DC m ulr ipjier                     R
                                                                                                  B 001       D r y c el l U M - 3      ( 1. 5V)         2 r equi r ed                B1
                                       (800k4) , 50V DC m ultiplier                                                                                '
 YX R 0 6              R e si sto r                                                       R
                                                                                                  8005        D r y c el l 006P ( 9V)                                                 B2
 \ . X R O'            R e si sto r     4M Q) ,250V         DC nultiplie                  R
                                                                                                              Meier    movement        Q4A/        2k)                                M
 \'\     R 08          R e si sto r      5N{ Q) , 1000V DC multiplie                      R8
                                                                                                  P0l 6       Panel fr am e ( YX- 360T R )
 YX R(rg               Resistor         3 kQ) , ser ies                                   R
                                                                                                  P 01
                                                                                                     7        Panel di al     ( YX- 360T R )
 YX RIi )              R e si s to r   920) , 2.5m A DC shunt                             R10
                                                                                                  x0l 6       R ear c as e ( YX - 360T R )
 Y' X R I]             Resistor         9O) '     25mA DC shunt                           R
                                                                                                  M Bl O      Meter    movement        base
 Y X R 12              R e si stg r     lA) ,     0.25A DC shunt                          R
                                                                                                  T001        T er m i nal j ac k ( 2d) '      3 r equi r ed
 YX R1 3               Res is to       7.lk0) , 10V AC multiplier                         R
                                                                                                  swlS        Range     selector     switch
 YX R Il               R               320kQ) , 50V AC multipiier                         R
                                                                                                  K0r5        R ange s el ec tor k nob
 YX R 1 5              Re si sto          6NlQ) , 250V AC mulr iplier                     R
                                                                                                  K 00?        0g adj us ter k nob
 YX R 6                Resisto          6 M Q) , lo0{ ) V AC m ulr inlr er                R
                                                                                                              N am e pl ate ( YX - 360T R )
 YX RIT                Resisto          2k-4k0),     ACV      sensitivitv   calibration   R
                                                                                                  L0crz       T es t l eads pai r 126)
 \.X R 8               Res s l.r         1k!l) , shunt                                    R                                           ( 4d)
                                                                                                  v005        Rear    case   bolt
 Yl i i t1 9           R                  kQ).     di,rde   serie                         R t!)
 \' .\ R 3r)           R csrst           1kf2) , obm ser ies                              R20                                               R . S. - R efer enc e        S y mb o l

 YX R 2 I              Res         f      Ql,     Q ,l       shunr                        R 2l
 \ ' . \ R :3          Re si sto r     200Q) , S2 X10 shur t                              R:]
YX R2 3                Resistor        (33.3kO),     Q xlk      shunt                     R 2l
 YX R 2 ]              Resistor        (l94kA),     !2 Xl0k      series

 YX R 2 5              Re s    tor     l0kQ),      0 [2 adjuste                           R25

                                                                                                                                    -25-
                                                -2 4 -



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