Service Manuals, User Guides, Schematic Diagrams or docs for : . Car Manuals Jeep Cherokee XJ 1997.1999-2001 Approved 1999 XJ Jeep Cherokee EXJ_8A

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XJ                                                                                                                       BATTERY          8A - 1


                                                                  page                                                                      page

DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION                                                   REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
  BATTERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1    BATTERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING                                                       SPECIFICATIONS
  BATTERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3    BATTERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
  BATTERY CHARGING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION                                                      Rapid loss of electrolyte can be caused by an over-
                                                                            charging condition. Be certain to diagnose the charg-
BATTERY                                                                     ing system before returning the vehicle to service.
                                                                            Refer to Charging System in the Diagnosis and
DESCRIPTION                                                                 Testing section of Group 8C - Charging System for
  A large capacity, low-maintenance storage battery                         more information.
is standard factory-installed equipment on this                                The factory-installed battery also has a built-in
model. This battery is designed to provide a safe, effi-                    test indicator (hydrometer). The color visible in the
cient and reliable means of storing electrical energy                       sight glass of the indicator will reveal the battery
in a chemical form. This means of energy storage                            condition. Refer to Built-In Test Indicator in the
allows the battery to produce the electrical energy                         Diagnosis and Testing section of this group for more
required to operate the engine starting system, as                          information.
well as to operate many of the other vehicle acces-                            This group covers only the battery diagnostic and
sory systems for limited durations while the engine                         service procedures. For battery maintenance sched-
and/or the charging system are not operating.                               ules and jump starting procedures, see the owner's
  The factory-installed low-maintenance bat-                                manual in the vehicle glove box, or refer to Mainte-
tery has removable battery cell caps. Water can                             nance Schedules and Jump Starting, Towing
be added to this battery. The battery is not sealed                         and Hoisting in Group 0 - Lubrication and Mainte-
and has vent holes in the cell caps (Fig. 1). The                           nance. While battery charging can be considered a
chemical composition within the low-maintenance                             maintenance procedure, battery charging information
battery reduces battery gassing and water loss, at                          is located in this group. This was done because the
normal charge and discharge rates.                                          battery must be fully-charged before any diagnosis
                                                                            can be performed.
                                                                               Group 8A covers the Battery, Group 8B covers the
                                                                            Starting Systems, and Group 8C covers the Charging
                                                                            System. We have separated these systems to make it
                                                                            easier to locate the information you are seeking
                                                                            within this Service Manual. However, when attempt-
                                                                            ing to diagnose any of these systems, it is important
                                                                            that you keep their interdependency in mind.
                                                                               The battery, starting, and charging systems in the
                                                                            vehicle operate with one another, and must be tested
                                                                            as a complete system. In order for the vehicle to start
                                                                            and charge properly, all of the components that are
                                                                            used in these systems must perform within specifica-
                                                                            tions. It is important that the battery, starting, and
                                                                            charging systems be thoroughly tested and inspected
                                                                            any time a battery needs to be charged or replaced.
                                                                            The cause of abnormal discharge, overcharging, or
        Fig. 1 Low-Maintenance Battery - Typical                            early battery failure must be diagnosed and corrected
                                                                            before a battery is replaced or returned to service.
8A - 2    BATTERY                                                                                              XJ
   The diagnostic procedures used in each of these         age potential of each cell is reduced. However, by
groups include the most basic conventional diagnostic      charging the battery with a voltage higher than that
methods, to the more sophisticated On-Board Diag-          of the battery, the battery discharging process is
nostics (OBD) built into the Powertrain Control Mod-       reversed.
ule (PCM). Use of an induction-type milliampere              Charging the battery gradually changes the sul-
ammeter, volt/ohmmeter, battery charger, carbon pile       fated lead plates back into sponge lead and lead
rheostat (load tester), and 12-volt test lamp may be       oxide, and the water back into sulfuric acid. This
required.                                                  action restores the difference in the electron charges
   All OBD-sensed systems are monitored by the             deposited on the plates, and the voltage potential of
PCM. Each monitored circuit is assigned a Diagnos-         the battery cells.
tic Trouble Code (DTC). The PCM will store a DTC in          For a battery to remain useful, it must be able to
electronic memory for any failure it detects. Refer to     produce high-amperage current over an extended
On-Board Diagnostic Test For Charging System               period. A battery must also be able to accept a
in the Diagnosis and Testing section of Group 8C -         charge, so that its voltage potential may be restored.
Charging System for more information.                        In addition to producing and storing electrical
                                                           energy, the battery serves as a capacitor, or voltage
NOTE: This group covers both Left-Hand Drive               stabilizer, for the electrical system of the vehicle. It
(LHD) and Right-Hand Drive (RHD) versions of this          absorbs most abnormal or transient voltages caused
model. Whenever required and feasible, the RHD             by the switching of any of the electrical components
versions of affected vehicle components have been          in the vehicle.
constructed as mirror-image of the LHD versions.             The battery is vented to release excess hydrogen
While most of the illustrations used in this group         gas that is created when the battery is being charged
represent only the LHD version, the diagnostic and         or discharged. However, even with these vents, the
service procedures outlined can generally be               hydrogen gas can collect in or around the battery. If
applied to either version. Exceptions to this rule         hydrogen gas is exposed to flame or sparks, it may
have been clearly identified as LHD or RHD, if a           ignite.
special illustration or procedure is required.               If the electrolyte level is low, the battery may arc
                                                           internally and explode. If the battery is equipped
                                                           with removable cell caps, add distilled water when-
OPERATION                                                  ever the electrolyte level is below the top of the
   The storage battery is a device used to store elec-     plates. If the battery cell caps cannot be removed, the
trical energy potential in a chemical form. When an        battery must be replaced if the electrolyte level
electrical load is applied to the battery terminals, an    becomes low.
electrochemical reaction occurs within the battery.
This reaction causes the battery to discharge electri-     BATTERY SIZE AND RATINGS
cal current.                                                 The battery Group Size number, the Cold Cranking
   The battery is made up of six individual cells that     Amperage (CCA) rating, and the Reserve Capacity
are connected in series. Each cell contains positively     (RC) rating or Ampere-Hours (AH) rating can be
charged plate groups made of lead oxide, and nega-         found on the original equipment battery label. Be
tively charged plate groups made of sponge lead.           certain that a replacement battery has the correct
These dissimilar metal plates are submerged in a           Group Size number, as well as CCA, and RC or AH
sulfuric acid and water solution called an electrolyte.    ratings that equal or exceed the original equipment
   As the battery discharges, a gradual chemical           specification for the vehicle being serviced.
change takes place within each cell. The sulfuric acid       Refer to Battery Classifications and Ratings in
in the electrolyte combines with the plate materials,      the Specifications section of this group for more infor-
causing both plates to slowly change to lead sulfate.      mation. Battery sizes and ratings are discussed in
At the same time, oxygen from the positive plate           more detail below.
material combines with hydrogen from the sulfuric
acid, causing the electrolyte to become mainly water.      GROUP SIZE
   The chemical changes within the battery are               The outside dimensions and terminal placement of
caused by the movement of excess or free electrons         the battery conform to standards established by the
between the positive and negative plate groups. This       Battery Council International (BCI). Each battery is
movement of electrons produces a flow of electrical        assigned a BCI Group Size number to help identify a
current through the load device attached to the bat-       correctly-sized replacement.
tery terminals.
   As the plate materials become more similar chem-
ically, and the electrolyte becomes less acid, the volt-
XJ                                                                                             BATTERY      8A - 3
COLD CRANKING AMPERAGE                                         When installing a battery, be certain that the hold
  The Cold Cranking Amperage (CCA) rating specifies         down fasteners are tightened to the proper specifica-
how much current (in amperes) the battery can deliver       tions. Improper hold down fastener tightness,
for thirty seconds at -18

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